The time has come when the Constitution
of the United States must be so altered as to give to the country
and its political workers some definite protection from the free
hand of anarchy, and  developments
during the last thirty years have proved the necessity of suppressing
the work of the professed advocates of anarchy.
When the Constitution was adopted
special protection was given to the people from the ones who governed
and whose duty it was to rule and preserve order. No special thought
was then given to the fact that the people might do an injury to
those who stood as the head as Chief Executive of the country.
The murderous attempts upon Lincoln,
Garfield, and President McKinley warn sober and reflective citizens
of the country that this kind of act must receive the penalty of
treason. Editorials throughout the country indicate that public
opinion is aroused to the fact that there is a limit to freedom,
and that it is necessary to amend the Constitution and pass a bill
through the Senate and the House of Representatives to give an additional
safeguard to the President’s life.
When examining the portraits of Leon
Czolgosz we realize several important facts which Phrenology alone
is able to indicate. They indicate a poor quality of organization,
with an unbalanced development of mind. There are several contradictions
in his outline of head and features which should be taken into account
when summing up the true nature of the man and his disposition.
The lower part of the face, namely,
the lips and the chin, correspond with the development of the occipital
lobe, and indicate the power of the cerebellum and the passionate
nature of the individual. In looking at the side head we see that
the ears are situated in a forward position of the head and are
quite low down on the cheeks; this being the case there is very
little room for intellectual brain-cells to develop in the anterior
portion of the head, and whenever the ears are low on the cheek
we invariably find that the character manifests itself in some desperate
There is a certain degree of effeminacy;
thus, the effeminacy of the amorous lips and the strong social brain
indicate that he might be an easy prey to the dictates of a stronger
mind than his own. The features of the face are not evenly moulded,
the left eye being higher than the right, the left ear higher than
the right, and the nose being irregular in shape, all show a want
of balance of mind and character.
The outlines of the head indicate
several strong characteristics which probably dominate and control
his character. One is the fact that his brain is broad at its base
and gives a tendency to hardness and severity, and when this basilar
region is so strongly accentuated a person needs a strong development
of  the moral faculties to
make proper use of it; otherwise, it often deteriorates and becomes
reckless in its expression. Destructiveness in its moral and intellectual
interpretation does not mean to destroy, but with the guidance of
Causality and Conscientiousness it gives to the character force,
energy, spirit, pluck, but uncontrolled it leads to baseness and
an appetite for uncontrolled passion, cruelty, and revenge.
Judging from the development of the
intellectual lobe which, according to the portraits, is not high,
we recognize that the man lived more in the basilar part of his
brain than in his finer susceptibilities of mind. There is only
about an inch of forehead from where the hair parts from the forehead
to the centre of the eyebrows; consequently, this young man could
not have had a very high or noble grasp of any intellectual kind.
He has breadth of head across the eyes which indicates a full development
of perceptive talent; and while we do not believe that he made the
plans for the crime he committed, he was able to execute the designs
by force of his strong perceptive faculties.
A sense of Form, Size, and Weight
are all strongly developed, and were useful in the execution of
his work. The superior part of the forehead does not represent that
the planning and thinking mind was great enough to develop the plot
by himself, through his Secretiveness above and behind the ear he
was enabled to hold his designs to himself instead of seeking to
gain self-glorification by communicating them to others.
If we take a survey of the crown of
the head we shall see the weakness of the man’s character. His Self-Esteem
was not sufficiently developed to give him self-respect and manliness
of character to avoid the lowering of himself to the perpetration
of a crime of such enormity.
Instead of being influenced by a love
of adulation and a hope of notoriety as some experts have stated,
we do not find his Approbativeness and Self-Esteem strongly developed,
and, consequently, we believe it was from quite a different motive
that he allowed himself to become a tool in the hands of others.
The motive is not far to seek, for
if we will examine the strong development of Firmness and the small
development of Veneration we shall see at once how the man showed
determination of mind in carrying out his blind sense of duty and
responsibility. It was his Firmness that gave him his resolution
and power to carry out what he considered to be his duty. He was
a conscientious follower of anarchistic principles. Of this we have
no doubt, and when the decree goes out for a certain person to be
 executed no one dares to
refuse, and no one is inclined to do so if he possesses as much
Firmness and Destructiveness as is shown in the head of Czolgosz.
Veneration is small in development,
which indicates that he has no respect to spare for the superiority
of any one’s character, and he would not mortify his sense of respect
in perpetrating an act so inhuman upon the President of the United
His temperamental conditions show
a strong tendency toward the vital and motive rather than the mental.
His round face and round back-head indicate the vital, while the
long jaw and the strong, thick nose indicate the motive temperament.
His weight of one hundred and fifty pounds, compared with his height
of five feet, eight and a half inches, together with his size of
head, indicate to us that he had more of the strength of physical
powers than the mental attributes.
Taking him altogether, he has the
signs of strength and weakness, but these are unfortunately blended
in such a way that they do not give him the right use of his qualities
as a normal American citizen. That he was the instrument of others
is our firm conviction, as he has not the strength of mind or clearness
of intellect nor the organizing ability of a number of other anarchists
whose portraits we have examined; namely, Lana, Malatissa, Emma
Goldman, and Louise Michel.