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Source: A Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Presidents
Source type: government document
Document type: article
Document title: “Roosevelt, Theodore.—Sept. 14, 1901, to March 4, 1909”
Author(s): anonymous
Volume number: 20
Publisher: Bureau of National Literature, Inc.
Place of publication: New York, New York
Year of publication: [1922]
Pagination: none

 
Citation
“Roosevelt, Theodore.—Sept. 14, 1901, to March 4, 1909.” A Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Presidents. Vol. 20. New York: Bureau of National Literature, [1922]: [no pagination].
 
Transcription
full text of article; excerpt of book
 
Keywords
Roosevelt presidency; Theodore Roosevelt (personal history); Theodore Roosevelt (public statements); Theodore Roosevelt (presidential policies).
 
Named persons
Robert Bacon; Charles J. Bonaparte; Charles H. Corrigan; George B. Cortelyou; Eugene V. Debs; Charles W. Fairbanks; Lyman J. Gage; James R. Garfield; Benjamin Harrison; John Hay; William Randolph Hearst; Ethan A. Hitchcock; Philander C. Knox; John D. Long; Victor H. Metcalf; William McKinley; George von Lengerke Meyer; William H. Moody; Paul Morton; Truman H. Newberry; Alton B. Parker; Henry C. Payne; Theodore Roosevelt; Elihu Root; Leslie M. Shaw; Charles Emory Smith; Oscar S. Straus; Silas Swallow; William Howard Taft; Thomas E. Watson; James Wilson; Carroll D. Wright; Luke E. Wright; Robert J. Wynne.
 
Notes
This book, the second of two “encyclopedic indexes,” is copyrighted 1917; however, since the first of the two indexes is copyrighted 1922, this same date is assigned herein for this second index as well.

From title page: With Additions and Encyclopedic Index by Private Enterprise.

From title page: Prepared under the Direction of the Joint Committee on Printing, of the House and Senate, Pursuant to an Act of the Fifty-Second Congress of the United States.
 
Document

 

Roosevelt, Theodore.—Sept. 14, 1901, to March 4, 1909

 

(FIRST TERM, SEPT. 14, 1901-MARCH 4, 1905.)
Twenty-ninth Administration (continued) Republican.

Secretary of State
        John Hay (continued).

Secretary of the Treasury
        Lyman J. Gage (continued).
        Leslie M. Shaw.

Secretary of War
        Elihu Root (continued).
        William H. Taft.

Attorney-General
        Philander C. Knox (continued).
        William H. Moody. [page break]

Postmaster-General
        Charles Emory Smith (continued).
        Henry C. Payne.
        Robert J. Wynne.

Secretary of the Navy
        John D. Long (continued).
        William H. Moody.
        Paul Morton.

Secretary of Interior
        Ethan A. Hitchcock (continued).

Secretary of Agriculture
        James Wilson (continued).

Secretary of Commerce and Labor
        George B. Cortelyou.
        Victor H. Metcalf.

     Roosevelt became President on the death of President McKinley, and took the oath of office Sept. 14, 1901. McKinley’s appointees were continued at the head of the executive departments for a time, the first change being the appointment of Leslie M. Shaw to succeed Lyman J. Gage as Secretary of the Treasury and Henry C. Payne to succeed Charles E. Smith as Postmaster-General, Jan. 8, 1902.

     Vice-President.—At the Republican National Convention, at Philadelphia, in 1900, President McKinley received the whole 730 votes in nomination for President, and Roosevelt received 729 for Vice-President (he not voting). Roosevelt was the fifth Vice-President to succeed to the Presidency by the death of the President in office, and the third to succeed by the death of the President by assassination.

(SECOND TERM, MARCH 4, 1905-MARCH 4, 1909.)
Thirtieth Administration—Republican.
Vice-President—Charles W. Fairbanks.

Secretary of State
        John Hay (continued).
        Elihu Root.
        Robert Bacon.

Secretary of the Treasury
        Leslie M. Shaw (continued).
        George B. Cortelyou.

Secretary of War
        William H. Taft (continued).
        Luke E. Wright.

Attorney-General
        William H. Moody (continued).
        Charles J. Bonaparte.

Postmaster-General
        George B. Cortelyou.
        George von L. Meyer.

Secretary of the Navy
        Charles J. Bonaparte.
        Victor H. Metcalf.
        Truman H. Newberry.

Secretary of the Interior
        Ethan A. Hitchcock (continued).
        James R. Garfield.

Secretary of Agriculture
        James Wilson (continued).

Secretary of Commerce and Labor
        Victor H. Metcalf (continued).
        Oscar S. Straus.

     SECOND TERMNomination.—The Republican party in National Convention at Chicago, June 22, 1904, nominated President Roosevelt by acclamation. The platform of 1904 rehearsed the recent performances of the Republican administrations, the gold standard established, the results in the Philippines, the beginning of the Panama Canal, irrigation of arid lands, increase of the navy; pledged the enforcement of anti-trust laws; reaffirmed protection; favored extension of reciprocity; upheld the gold standard; urged the increase of the merchant marine; declared for a larger navy; endorsed the exclusion of Chinese labor; declared for civil service reform; favored international arbitration; urged inquiry into the constitutionality of negro enfranchisement; advocated equal laws for labor and capital; paid a tribute to the memory of President McKinley; and eulogized President Roosevelt.

     Opposition.—The Democratic National Convention at St. Louis, July 9, nominated Alton B. Parker on the first ballot over William R. Hearst. The Prohibition party, at Indianapolis, June 30, nominated Silas C. Swallow by acclamation. The People’s party, at Springfield, Ill., nominated Thomas E. Watson by acclamation. The Socialist party, at Chicago, May 5, nominated Eugene Debs by acclamation. The Socialist Labor party, at New York, July 4, nominated Charles H. Corrigan by acclamation. The United Christian party, at St. Louis, May 2; the Continental party, at Chicago, Sept. 1; and the National Liberty (Negro) party, at St. Louis, July 7, placed candidates in the field.

     Party Affiliation.—President Roosevelt from his earliest connection with politics was attached to the Republican party. In his earliest days, as a representative to the State legislature of New York, he maintained a large degree of independence; yet he was chosen a delegate to the National Republican Convention in 1884, and was chairman of the delegation. He was an independent Republican in 1886, as a candidate for the mayoralty of the City of New York. His identity with the Republican party became very close during the Harrison administration and as Assistant Secretary of the Navy under McKinley in 1897. In 1898 he was the Republican Governor of the State of New York.

     Vote.—The popular vote ran: Roosevelt, 7,623,486; Parker, 5,077,971; Debs, 402,283; Swallow, 258,536; Watson, 117,183; and Corrigan, 31,249. The electoral vote gave Roosevelt 336 and Parker 140.

     Political Complexion of Congress.—In the Fifty-seventh Congress (1901-1903) the Senate, of 91 members, was composed of 29 Democrats, 56 Republicans, 1 Populist, 1 Silver party, 1 Fusionist, and 2 vacancies; and the House, of 357 members, was made up of 153 Democrats, 198 Republicans, 3 Populists, 1 Silver party, 1 Fusionist, with 2 vacancies. In the Fifty-eighth Congress (1903-1905) the Senate, of 90 members, was composed of 32 Democrats and 58 Republicans, and the House, of 382 members, was composed of 174 Democrats, 206 Republicans, 2 Union Labor, with 2 vacancies. In the Fifty-ninth Congress (1905-1907) the Senate, of 90 members, was composed of 32 Democrats and 58 Republicans; and the House, of 386 members, was made up of 136 Democrats and 250 Republicans. In the Sixtieth Congress (1907-1909) the Senate, of 92 members, was composed of 31 Democrats and 61 Republicans; and the House, of 386 members, was made up of 164 Democrats and 222 Republicans.

     Tariff.—President Roosevelt in his First Annual Message (page 6650) said: “There is general acquiescence in our present tariff system as a national policy. The first requisite to our prosperity is the continuity and stability of this economic policy. . . . . Our experience in the past has shown that sweeping revisions of the tariff are apt to produce conditions closely approaching panic in the business world. . . . Reciprocity must be treated as the hand-maiden of protection. Our first duty is to see that the protection granted by the tariff in every case where it is needed is maintained, and that reciprocity be sought for so far as it [page break] can safely be done without injury to our home industries.” In his Second Annual Message (page 6712) the President seeks to refute the argument that a reduction of the tariff would curb trusts. He says: “Many of the largest corporations, many of these which should certainly be included in any proper scheme of regulation, would not be affected in the slightest degree by a change in the tariff save as such change interfered with the general prosperity of the country. The only relation of the tariff to big corporations as a whole is that the tariff makes manufactures profitable, and the tariff remedy proposed would be in effect simply to make manufactures unprofitable. To remove the tariff as a punitive measure directed against trusts would inevitably result in ruin to the weaker competitors who are struggling against them.” As a corrective to conditions, the President advises the extension of reciprocity treaties. “Wherever the tariff conditions,” he says, “are such that a needed change can not with advantage be made by the application of the reciprocity idea, then it can be made outright by a lowering of the duties on a certain product.” In his Special Session Message of Nov. 10, 1903, the President discusses the proposed reciprocity treaty with Cuba. In his Sixth Annual Message (page 7050) the President says: “I most earnestly hope that the bill to provide a lower tariff for or else absolute free trade in Philippine products will become a law. No harm will come to any American industry; and while there will be some small but real material benefit to the Philippines, the main benefit will come by the showing made as to our purpose to do all in our power for their welfare.” In his Seventh Annual Message (page 7083) on tariff revision, the President says: “This country is definitely committed to the protective system and any effort to uproot it could not but cause widespread industrial disaster. . . . But in a country of such phenomenal growth as ours it is probably well that every dozen years or so the tariff laws should be carefully scrutinized so as to see that no excessive or improper benefits are conferred thereby, that proper revenue is provided, and that our foreign trade is encouraged. . . . This means that the subject can not with wisdom be dealt with in the year preceding a Presidential election, because, as a matter of fact, experience has conclusively shown that at such a time it is impossible to get men to treat it from the standpoint of public good. In my judgment the wise time to deal with the matter is immediately after such election.” In the same message the President favored the incorporation of both income tax and inheritance tax as a part of the system of Federal taxation. On page 7099, the President says: “There should be no tariff on any forest product grown in this country, and in especial there should be no tariff on wood pulp.”

     Civil Service.—In his First Annual Message President Roosevelt (page 6673) urged appointment in all possible cases upon the merit system, which he maintained was the only fair test of fitness; “all applicants should have a fair field and no favor, each standing on his merits as he is able to show them by practical test. In my judgment,” he says, “all laws providing for the temporary employment of clerks should hereafter contain a provision that they be selected under the Civil Service law.” In his Third Annual Message (page 6803) the merit system is reported as working most satisfactorily: “The completion of the reform of the civil service is recognized by good citizens everywhere as a matter of the highest importance, and the success of the merit system largely depends upon the effectiveness of the rules and the machinery provided for their enforcement.” In his Fifth Annual Message (page 7011) the President says: “The question of politics in the appointment and retention of the men engaged in merely ministerial work has been practically eliminated in almost the entire field of Government employment covered by the civil service law.” In a veto message of Feb. 5, 1909 (page 7176), the President urges that the employees engaged in the work of taking the thirteenth census be brought into the classified service and quotes Hon. Carroll D. Wright, who had charge of the census after 1890, as estimating that more than $2,000,000 and over a year’s time would have been saved had the force been so regulated.

     Public Debt.—The public debt of the United States during the years of President Roosevelt’s administration proper stood as follows: July 1, 1905, $989,866,772.00; 1906, $964,435,686.79; 1907, $858,685,510; Nov. 1, 1908, $897,253,999.00

     Commerce.—In his Gubernatorial Message to the legislature of New York, in 1899, Governor Roosevelt took his stand upon the principle of taxing and regulating corporations and others who enjoyed franchises. To properly adjust taxation and to apply effective restriction were to be attained by investigation of conditions.“The first essential,” he said, “is knowledge of the facts—publicity.” This sentiment led to the desire expressed in his First Annual Message (page 6649) for the appointment of a Secretary of Commerce and Labor. “It should be his province to deal,” he said, “with commerce in its broadest sense; including among many other things, whatever concerns labor and all matters affecting the great business corporations and our merchant marine.” In his Second Annual Message (page 6712) he said: “I believe that monopolies, unjust discriminations, which prevent or cripple competition, fraudulent over-capitalization, and other evils in trust organizations and practices which injuriously affect interstate trade, can be prevented under the power of Congress to ‘regulate commerce with foreign nations and among the several States’ through regulations and requirements operating directly upon such commerce, the instrumentalities thereof, and those engaged therein.” In speaking of the working of the Department of Commerce and Labor, the President said in his Third Annual Message (page 6785): “Publicity in corporate affairs will tend to do away with ignorance and will afford facts upon which intelligent action may be taken. Systematic, intelligent investigation is already developing facts the knowledge of which is essential to a right understanding of the needs and duties of the business world. The Department of Commerce will be not only the clearing house for information regarding the business transactions of the Nation, but the executive arm of the Government to aid in strengthening our domestic and foreign markets, in perfecting our transportation facilities, in building up our merchant marine, in preventing the entrance of undesirable immigrants, in improving commercial and other industrial conditions and in bringing together on common ground those necessary partners in industrial progress—capital and labor.” In his Fourth Annual Message (page 6901) he said: “Above all else we must strive to keep the highways of commerce open to all on equal terms; and to do this it is necessary to put a complete stop to all rebates.” In his Fifth Annual Message (page 6974) the President said: “I am in no sense hostile to corporations. This is an age of [page break] combination, and any effort to prevent all combination will be not only useless, but in the end vicious, because of the contempt for law which the failure to enforce law inevitably produces. . . . The corporation has come to stay, just as the trade union has come to stay. Each can do and has done great good. Each should be favored so long as it does good. But each should be sharply checked where it acts against law and justice.” The President’s Special Message of May 4, 1906, explicitly sets forth the conditions of the Standard Oil Company and the railroads as they appear to the Bureau of Corporations. Stock Yard and Packing House abuses are dealt with in his message of June 4, 1906.
     In his Sixth Annual Message (page 7078) the President said: “Among the points to be aimed at should be the prohibition of unhealthy competition, such as by rendering service at an actual loss for the purpose of crushing out competition, the prevention of inflation of capital, and the prohibition of a corporation’s making exclusive trade with itself a condition of having any trade with itself.”

 

 


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