Publication information
Source: Annual Report of the Board of Police of the City of Buffalo
Source type: government document
Document type: report
Document title: “Police Superintendent’s Report”
Author(s): Bull, William S.
Publisher: Wenborne-Sumner Co.
Place of publication: Buffalo, New York
Year of publication: 1902
Pagination: 7-48 (excerpt below includes only pages 7-22)

Bull, William S. “Police Superintendent’s Report.” Annual Report of the Board of Police of the City of Buffalo. Buffalo: Wenborne-Sumner, 1902: pp. 7-48.
Buffalo, NY (police department); Pan-American Exposition (police protection); Buffalo, NY (impact of Pan-American Exposition); McKinley assassination; McKinley assassination (government response); McKinley assassination (public response: Buffalo, NY); Leon Czolgosz (incarceration: Buffalo, NY); Leon Czolgosz (incarceration: Buffalo, NY: relocation); Milburn residence (curiosity seekers); William McKinley (lying in state: Buffalo, NY).
Named persons
Louis L. Babcock; William S. Bull; John Burfeind; John Byrne; John H. Cooper; Floyd S. Crego; Patrick V. Cusack; Leon Czolgosz; Patrick J. Devine; Conrad Diehl; Edward K. Emery; Joseph Fowler; John J. Geary; Frederick Haller; Lewis W. Henafelt; William Jordan; Frank J. Killeen; Loran L. Lewis [first name misspelled below]; John Martin (a); Ida McKinley; William McKinley; George S. Metcalfe; John G. Milburn; Samuel H. Notter; Thomas Penney; James W. Putnam; James L. Quackenbush; Edward R. Rice; Alexander R. Robertson; Lawrence D. Rumsey; Charles A. Rupp; Alex H. Sloan; Albert Solomon; Thomas W. Symons; Robert C. Titus; James F. Vallely; Samuel M. Welch; Truman C. White.
From title page: Annual Report of the Board of Police of the City of Buffalo, for the Year Ending December 31, 1901.


Police Superintendent’s Report [excerpt]

January 23, 1902.    

To the Honorable, Board of Police Commissioners:

     GENTLEMEN:—I have the honor to forward my Annual Report for the year 1901 and I am pleased to state that the complimentary notices in the Press and the commendation of personal communications to the Superintendent of Police bear testimony to the efficiency and discipline of the Buffalo Police Department.
     The year 1901 will be memorable in the history of the City of Buffalo. The Pan-American Exposition in its glorious beauty, and the cowardly assassination of President McKinley has made Buffalo a historical centre, known to every city and hamlet on the face of the Globe.
     The Pan-American Exposition attracted millions of strangers, and notwithstanding that upon many occasions the population of our city was nearly doubled, it is most gratifying to report that there was less crime committed in the city during the six months of the Exposition, than during the corresponding time of any other year since this Department was organized. The primary precautions taken to guard against an influx of criminals from all parts of the world, as well as the individual efforts and the personal pride of every member of the force to protect life and property, at the same time respecting the personal liberties of our citizens and visitors, is responsible for the marvelous record of this Department, [7][8] not only during the Exposition itself, but after the gates were closed.
     Knowing the immense amount of work that would be required of the Force during the Exposition, in protecting the lives and property of citizens and visitors form the depredation of all classes of crooks and thieves whom we knew would centre in Buffalo, and with the idea of not increasing the hours of service of the patrolmen, Your Honorable Body asked the Common Council for an appropriation sufficient to increase the patrol force by 150 men, for seven months. With this addition it was expected that the service of the force in three platoons could be maintained, but the Common Council in their judgment refused your request for 150 patrolmen, but did make an appropriation allowing the employment of 75 extra patrolmen for a period of six months. This addition made it impossible to continue the Force upon three platoons, furnish all the necessary permanent details and provide for emergent details, and therefore upon May 19th, by the order of Your Honorable Board I placed the Force upon an emergent two-platoon system. A schedule was prepared for the tour of duties with the object of utilizing the services of every man, and at the same time arranging for the care, comfort and health of the Force, not over-working the men, and giving all sufficient rest between tours of duty. This schedule was a decided innovation and an improvement upon what is known as the two-platoon system, and was quite satisfactory to the Force. A table explanatory of the schedule will be found in another portion of this report. It was intended to return to the three-platoon system on the first of November, but the two-platoon system was continued over the general election, and on the fifth day of November the Force was returned to the three-platoon system.
     The Exposition grounds where [sic] wholly within the boundaries of the Thirteenth Precinct, and for the purpose of having at all times a sufficient number of patrolmen within the immediate vicinity of the Exposition, Your Honorable Body erected an annex station for No. 13 in a portion of the Buffalo Railway Co’s building [8][9] at the corner of West Amherst street and Elmwood avenue. During the Exposition the Thirteenth Precinct and the Thirteenth Precinct annex were commanded at various times by Captain John Burfeind, Captain Samuel H. Notter and Captain Frank J. Killeen. As the Exposition Company had a most excellent police force, organized, drilled and disciplined under that veteran police officer and most efficient commandant, Col. John Byrne, our force did not enter the grounds officially except upon special occasions when acting as escort for some organization marching into the grounds, and upon the closing night, the 2nd of November when it became necessary for Col. Byrne to call upon our force for assistance, the Pan-American Exposition Co. having reduced its available force to numbers insufficient to cope with the very disorderly element. Col. Byrne and I held a consultation in the afternoon of November 2nd, upon this matter, and I ordered a special detail of 100 men, part in the sixth and part in the thirteenth precincts, upon which Col. Byrne could call if necessary. About 12:45 A. M. Nov. 3d, Col. Byrne sent word to me at the thirteenth precinct police station annex, that he would like to have the Buffalo Police Force go upon the Exposition grounds; I, with a body of sixty men under the command of Captain Killeen and under the supervision of Inspector Martin, entered the Exposition grounds and found a riotous crowd of some 2500 men bent upon destroying everything in sight. It required but a few moments to place our men, and at twenty minutes after 1 o’clock, this turbulent element had been cleared from the grounds and order prevailed.
     Immediately upon the closing of the Pan-American Exposition gates No. 13 police station annex was abandoned, and the officers from other stations temporarily attached to No. 13 were returned to their several precincts. On the 15th of November the Pan-American Exposition Co. mustered out the remnant of their police force and called upon this Department to furnish special protection for the buildings, and property upon the grounds. A detail of 21 men was assigned to the thirteenth precinct for this [9][10] purpose, and continued until the property of the Exposition Co., through legal proceedings was taken possession of by the Sheriff, when our detail was relieved.
     In addition to the large detail of patrolmen made to the thirteenth precinct Your Honorable Board also placed a patrol wagon in the Thirteenth Precinct during the six months of the Pan-American Exposition.
     The work of the Detective Bureau, in charge of the veteran police officer, Assistant Superintendent Patrick V. Cusack, and the precinct detectives merit special mention, and it is to their constant and untiring efforts that the city was kept clear of thieves and swindlers during the Exposition.
     In addition to the regular Headquarter Detective Force of fifteen officers, I detailed to Assistant Superintendent Cusack thirty officers from the patrol force. In addition we had twenty detectives from the police forces of other cities, and a corps of five special Secret Service men that reported to the Superintendent direct.
     I directed that no professional or known thief should be allowed to remain in this city, and issued instructions to arrest all of this class of individuals on sight. One hundred and eighty professional and a large number of small fry thieves were arrested and disposed of; the lesser class being brought before the Morning Justices, convicted and committed to the Penitentiary. The professional men were all brought to Headquarters, measured and photographed by the Bertillon system, arraigned before the Police Justice and disposed of by being committed to the Penitentiary for terms from 30 to 180 days, or ordered out of the city. A list of names and records of these people will be found in another part of this report. Each morning all thieves arrested were brought to the Superintendent’s office and exhibited to the Headquarter Detective Force, all of the Detective Sergeants, Special Detail men, and Detective Sergeants from out of town. In each case the history of the thief and his entire pedigree was given to the officers assembled, and [10][11] if the thief was not held by the Justice, he was ordered out of the city, and escorted to the depot to take the first train. The manner of our disposing of the professional thief was soon communicated to the entire fraternity and was the means of keeping away a great many who, we had been informed, were making their way to Buffalo. While there is no doubt these thieves plied their avocations to a certain degree, there was only one case of professional pickpocketing recorded during the summer, two pickpockets successfully worked the Elmwood avenue cars part of one afternoon and evening and succeeded in getting away with four or five watches. It is thought they were part of a gang that made their headquarters at Niagara Falls and took the risk of running into Buffalo, doing a job and leaving immediately. There were several cases of “Con” games worked, but it was noticeable that none were successful on citizens, rural visitors being the victims, who were in many cases unable to give a reliable description of the thieves. I think that the reason our citizens were immune to being robbed is largely due to the precautionary circulars distributed from these Headquarters early in the season, giving a description of the tricks of thieves and their way of working. A copy of the circular is published with this report, as is also a copy of a circular issued from the Superintendent’s office relative to street traffic and its control.
     The detailed amount of lost and stolen property for the year will be found in the table in another part of this report, but I call your attention especially to the report of lost and stolen property for the six months of 1900 and 1901.
     The number of arrests for the year 1901 was 25,057, being a decrease of 3,209 from the preceding year. I call your attention to the disposition of cases brought before the Morning Justices for the following offenses: There were arrested for intoxication 11,011, discharged 43, sentence suspended upon 9,014. There were arrested on the charge of disorderly conduct 4,566, discharged 232, and sentence suspended upon 2,691.
     The force attended 833 fires, and fire alarms were turned on [11][12] by 160 officers. The force extinguished 44 fires without sending in an alarm. There were 1704 doors and windows of business places found open, and secured, and the patrol wagons made 12,291 runs. The hourly report from officers was 895,000. The total amount of property stolen was $63,227.29, and of this amount there was recovered $48,841.85. There was property lost to the value of $17,678.83 and there was property found to the value of $11,866.53. During the year 1901 we kept the bicycles lost and stolen separated from the other property, as many bicycles are lost or stolen through carelessness of the owner, I made it a rule that no bicycle reported should be considered stolen unless the owner had taken the precaution to secure it by locking it, or placing it in a place of safety. There were reported bicycles stolen to the value of $920.00 and we recovered bicycles valued at $1,140.00. There were bicycles reported lost to the value of $12,254.50 and bicycles found to the value of $9,521.50. These figures are included in the totals of property stolen and property lost.
     President McKinley arrived in Buffalo on a special train over the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern Ry., at 6:00 P. M., Sept. 4th, and the special train went direct to the Exposition grounds. At the railway gate of the Exposition the President and his party were met by the Fourth Brigade National Guard Signal Corps mounted—twenty mounted men of this department and Detective-Sergeants Patrick J. Devine, Lewis W. Henafelt, John J. Geary and Albert Solomon. The Detective Sergeants’ instructions were to keep near the President’s person during his visit to Buffalo.
     The President was escorted through the Exposition grounds to Mr. John G. Milburn’s house, which was his Official Residence while the guest of the Pan-American Exposition Co.
     Thursday, September 5th, was the President’s day at the Pan-American Exposition grounds, and he was escorted to the grounds by the same mounted escort that met him September 4th. The instructions of the mounted detail was to be in [12][13] attendance upon the President during his stay within the city, but after the 5th, at the request of Mrs. McKinley, the detail of mounted police was reduced to eight men.
     On Friday, September 6th, the President again visited the Exposition grounds, and also made a trip to Niagara Falls, returning to the Exposition in the afternoon of that day for the purpose of holding a public reception in the Temple of Music. At 4:20 P. M., Friday, September 6th, I received a telephone message from Mr. James L. Quackenbush informing me that the President had been shot, and asking that I immediately send detectives and police officers to the Pan-American Exposition. He also told me that the assassin of the President was under arrest. Orders were issued for all available men to proceed at once to the Exposition grounds, and I dispatched some of our Headquarter Detectives. At 4:30 P. M., in company with Inspector John Martin, I drove to the Exposition grounds, and when on Delaware Avenue, near Barker street, I met a carriage in which was Detective-Sergeants John J. Geary and Albert Solomon, Capt. Vallely of the Exposition Detective Force, Major Robertson, Deputy Commandant of the Exposition Police Force and the assassin. Immediately I retraced my steps, proceeding to the City Hall in search of the District Attorney.
     I found that the District Attorney’s office had been apprised of the assassination of the President, and hastening to Police Headquarters I found that the assassin was in the Headquarter prison department, and Mr. Haller, Assistant District Attorney, present ready to proceed with an investigation. The prisoner was brought before Assistant District Attorney Haller and myself. He gave his name as Fred Nieman, said that he was born in Detroit, was 28 years old, that he was an anarchist, had killed the President and believed that he had done his duty and was glad of it. Shortly after the examination of the prisoner had begun, Mr. Thomas Penney, District Attorney, came to Headquarters and took charge of the investigation. The prisoner was at all times cool and collected, showing no indication of feelings of remorse [13][14] or sorrow for the crime he had committed, repeatedly stating that he had done his duty and wasn’t sorry for it and realizing fully the penalty of the crime upon conviction.
     In the statement made by the prisoner he said his name was not Fred Nieman, but Leon F. Czolgosz, and gave the history of himself and his family.
     Naturally the people were greatly excited; the streets were crowded with people threatening to assault Police Headquarters, take the prisoner from custody and lynch him. As soon as word had been received that the President had been shot, I ordered a heavy detail of patrolmen to report to Police Headquarters and all the streets within two blocks of Police Headquarters, was patroled and carefully guarded. One or two demonstrations were made to break the police lines, and although within the breast of every patrolman was the same feeling that existed with the excited citizens that the assassin should be summarily dealt with, they felt that the majesty of the law must be upheld and that the prisoner and the property of the city would be defended at all hazards. The bulletins issued by the surgeons in charge of the President, that the President was resting comfortably and that there was a possibility of his recovery, quieted the people, and at one o’clock A. M., there were practically no more people on the streets than ordinarily. Day and night we kept a heavy patrol force about Police Headquarters. The favorable reports from time to time of the President’s improved condition had a most beneficial effect upon our citizens generally, changing their thoughts from vengeance upon the assassin, to hopeful prayers for the President’s recovery, and that justice should be meted out to the prisoner as provided under the constitution.
     On the evening of the first examination of the prisoner, Dr. Joseph Fowler, Surgeon of Police, suggested to the District Attorney that an investigation as to Czolgosz’ sanity should be immediately begun, and each day thereafter Doctors Fowler, Putnam and Crego examined Czolgosz, and the prison guards in [14][15] charge of him carefully watched his conduct and made report, thereon. There was at no time during his confinement that he showed the least indication of insanity or an unbalanced mind. He was always cool, collected, fully realizing the enormity of the crime he had committed.
     Although the city was quiet, and the excitement incident upon the first news of the President’s assassination had become normal, the precautionary measures for the protection of Police Headquarters and the prisoner were not relaxed, except that the Reserve Force at Station No. 1 was somewhat reduced.
     On Thursday, September 12th, the President’s condition was not considered favorable, signs of unrest began to appear, and muttered threats against the assassin were heard occasionally. The reserve at Police Station No. 1, was again increased, and the patrol posts in the vicinity of Police Headquarters were doubled.
     No charge had been laid against Czolgosz, and by reason of the Erie County Jail undergoing repairs, and the jail prisoners being confined temporarily at the Erie County Penitentiary, Czolgosz was detained at Police Headquarters at the request of the District Attorney, while making his investigation and examining witnesses. The daily bulletins of the Surgeons, in charge of the President’s case, continued to be unfavorable; with threatened assaults upon the Police Headquarters building for the purpose of obtaining possession of the prisoner, that he might be summarily dealt with by the people, led the Police Commissioners to question the advisability of retaining him at Headquarters longer, not that they had any fear that any mob could successfully attack the building and release the prisoner, they knowing that we had a sufficient number of men to successfully cope and defeat any mob that should make the attempt, but knowing too, that any attempt would result disastrously to the attacking party, and possible many innocent persons would suffer, it was decided on consultation with the District Attorney to remove the prisoner. This was done on Friday morning, September 13th, at eleven o’clock and he was taken to the Erie County Penitentiary, by [15][16] Assistant Superintendent, Patrick V. Cusack, and placed in charge of Mr. Alexander Sloan, Keeper of the Penitentiary, under an arrangement previously made between Mr. Sloan and District Attorney Thomas Penney.
     The ridiculous and sensational stories that he was smuggled from Police Headquarters in the disguise of a police officer, and taken away in a patrol wagon, were untrue in every particular. As has been stated above, he was removed from Headquarters in daylight, at eleven o’clock in the morning. Mr. Cusack did not even place handcuffs upon the prisoner. There was no change in his garments from those worn when he was brought to Headquarters, with the exception of a clean shirt and a hat that was provided for him, his hat having been lost in the Temple of Music.
     His removal from Police Headquarters, and knowledge of where he had been taken was strictly guarded, his removal being known only to Police Commissioner Rupp, the Superintendent and Officer William Jordan.
     At the Penitentiary he was placed in the women’s dungeon and no one in the Penitentiary, with the exception of Mr. Sloan and one or two trusted assistants, knew who was the prisoner confined in that dungeon. Czolgosz was detained at the Penitentiary until after the death of the President, and the remains had been removed from Buffalo, and until five o’clock on Monday afternoon, when he was brought to the Erie County Jail, and from thence conducted through the underground passage to the City and County hall, and arraigned before County Judge Emery, Czolgosz having been indicted Monday morning, September 16th, by the Grand Jury, then in session, charged with murder in the first degree. Czolgosz was detained at the Erie County Jail until his conviction and removal to Auburn State Prison.
     In the removal of the prisoner from Police Headquarters to the Penitentiary there was a strange coincidence in the fact that the coach driver who had brought the prisoner from the Exposition grounds to Police Headquarters, also drove the coach that removed him to the Penitentiary. [16][17]
     The stories that Czolgosz while confined at Police Headquarters was fed sumptuously every day, that he was allowed to receive flowers, fruits and delicacies, and that newspaper reporters were allowed to interview him, are positively untrue. Czolgosz received the same food provided for other prisoners, except that upon direction of the police surgeon after two or three days confinement his diet was reduced. His breakfast consisted of potato, bread and butter and coffee. His dinner consisted of one kind of meat, one vegetable, bread and butter and coffee, and his supper the same as breakfast. Of this food he had a sufficient supply, and usually ate more than an ordinary prisoner, he having a very keen appetite. He was not provided with cigars, although having been a smoker, the surgeon directed that he be permitted to use a limited amount of tobacco daily. The treatment given Czolgosz was no different from that received by other prisoners, except that he was in solitary confinement, guarded day and night.
     On Friday night, September 13th, when the unfavorable reports of the President’s condition was announced, and all hope of his recovery abandoned, the reserves at No. 1 station house were doubled, and all streets leading to Police Headquarters heavily patrolled. General Samuel M. Welch, Jr., commanding the 4th Brigade National Guard, placed in the Armory of the 65th Regiment two companies of the 65th Regiment, and in the 74th Regiment Armory two companies of the 74th Regiment, to protect the State property in case of an outbreak. Around all Bulletin Boards reporting the President’s condition, large crowds assembled, hoping the next report would be favorable to the President’s recovery. At 11.35 P. M., when the last Bulletin was posted announcing the President’s death, the crowds quietly dispersed. Vengeance was turned to sorrow; it was as if death had entered every household. Sympathy for the bereaved widow, expressions of love and honor for the martyred President were upon every lip. The pall had fallen, obscuring the tragedy and its author—Czolgosz was forgotten.
     The President after being shot was removed to the Emergency [17][18] Hospital on the Exposition grounds, and then to the residence of John G. Milburn. A detail of Police was kept at the Milburn house. The streets for one block in each direction were roped off and no vehicles allowed to approach the house. In addition to the police detail there was a detachment from the 14th U. S. Infantry.
     It was necessary to maintain a Police detail at the Milburn house from the time the President’s remains were removed until the 1st of December. From daylight until dark, every day, the camera and kodak fiends were out in force, and the souvenir hunter was ready to destroy the house. Pebbles from the driveway were picked up, leaves that dropped from the trees taken, and one souvenir hunter with more nerve than the others appeared with a mallet and chisel and requested the officer on duty that he be allowed to remove a few bricks from the building. It is unnecessary to say this request was denied, and nothing was destroyed either upon the grounds or about the house.
     On Sunday morning, September 15th, funeral services were held at the Milburn house, and the remains of the President were escorted to the City Hall. As the remains were removed from the hearse a severe rainstorm with heavy wind occurred. The streets North and South of the City Hall, beyond the lines established by the Police, and the streets running East and West were a mass of people awaiting an opportunity to view the remains of the late President. At 1.20 P. M. the lines were opened to permit the people to pass into the City Hall and view the remains. The people were formed in two ranks, entering the City Hall from Franklin Street, passing on either side of the casket and through the City Hall to Delaware Avenue. The doors of the City Hall were closed at 11 P. M., and it was estimated that between ninety and one hundred thousand people had passed the remains of the President.
     Although the crowd of people within the vicinity of the City Hall during the ten hours was probably larger than ever gathered in Buffalo within the same area, and the line of people at times [18][19] was fully one mile in length, there was no unseemly crowding or noisy demonstration. The crowd at all times was under perfect control of the Police officers.
     At seven o’clock Monday morning, Sept. 16th, the remains of President McKinley, under military and police escort, were placed upon a Pennsylvania R. R. Special, to be taken to Washington, D. C.
     Czolgosz was placed on trial at 10 A. M., Monday, September 23rd. The Jury was sworn in before three o’clock P. M. The prosecution was most ably conducted by the Hon. Thomas Penney, District Attorney for Erie County, and the defence was in the able hands of the Hon. Robert C. Titus and the Hon. Loren L. Lewis, former Justices, of the Supreme Court, State of New York.
     On Tuesday afternoon, September 24th, the case was submitted to the Jury, the Jury retired at 3:51, and at 4:23 returned a verdict of murder in the first degree.
     President William McKinley was assassinated in the Temple of Music at the Pan-American Exposition grounds at 4:10 P. M., September 6th; he died at 2.15 A. M., September 14th, and was buried at 3.30 P. M. September 19th, at Canton, Ohio.
     Leon F. Czolgosz, his assassin, was indicted on Monday, September 16th. The trial was held in part III of the Criminal Term, Supreme Court, City and County Hall, September 23-24, the Hon. Truman C. White, Justice of the Supreme Court presiding, and he was electrocuted in the State prison at Auburn, N. Y., at 7.12 A. M., Tuesday, October 29th.

     I herewith append a letter from the Committee on Ceremonies during President McKinley’s visit to the Pan-American Exposition.

BUFFALO, N. Y., September 20, 1901.    

          Superintendent of Police, Buffalo, N. Y.

     DEAR SIR—During the ceremonies of the late President, on September 15th and 16th, 1901, the undersigned had an excellent [19][20] opportunity to observe the work of the Police under circumstances calculated to try the discipline and good judgment of a majority of the members of the Department.
     We have no hesitation in saying that so great a crowd was never better handled.
     We wish to thank you for the admirable and judicious arrangements planned by you, and to commend the excellent spirit in which the work was carried out by the officers and men of the Department. It certainly showed a high state of discipline and efficiency.
     Every citizen of this city has just reason to be proud of a Department capable of such long continued and sustained effort without the occurrence of a single mishap, or accident of any kind.

       Yours very truly,
                 THOMAS W. SYMONS
                 EDWARD R. RICE
                 LOUIS L. BABCOCK
                 JAMES L. QUACKENBUSH
                 LAWRENCE D. RUMSEY
                 GEORGE S. METCALFE
                           Committee on Ceremonies.


     The following address issued by Your Honorable Board to the Force was duly appreciated by every member of the Force.

COMMISSIONERS’ OFFICE,                   

To the Police Force:—

     The Pan-American Exposition which created the emergency causing the force to be placed upon the two-platoon system has [20][21] closed its gates, and the Superintendent has issued orders returning the Force to the three-platoon system on Wednesday morning, the 6th inst.
     Although the duty performed during the past six months was nominally under the two-platoon system, the Superintendent, when making the assignments, bore in mind, as he always does, the care and comfort of the force. Knowing that it was necessary to preserve the health and strength of the men in order to meet any extraordinary call to continuous service, he prepared a schedule for patrol and reserve duty that would require the fewest number of hours possible for efficient police work.
     The Board of Police congratulates and hereby thanks Superintendent William S. Bull for unremitting attention to the duties of his office, which have been more arduous, for the signal ability displayed in his direction of the work of the force, and the high standard of excellence maintained therein, and the magnificent service so efficiently given the city.
     The unqualified commendations of the Board is [sic] extended to the rank and file for the efficient, excellent, prompt and courteous manner in which they have performed their many arduous duties during the Pan-American Exposition period, and it is with pride and pleasure the Board states that at no time has a serious complaint of inefficient or discourteous conduct on the part of any officer been made. On the contrary, words of praise were received from all quarters. Many of the prominent visitors, citizens, public officers of the Government, of the States and Cities, personally complimented the Department for the efficiency, general conduct and appearance of the force.
     During the trying times from the date the President was shot, September 6th, until the morning of September 16th, when his honored remains were removed from the City, representatives of the leading journals of the Union were in Buffalo in large numbers. These men who in the interest of their papers are at all events of national importance, and are constantly in contact with the police of all great cities, and whose training and business is [21][22] to report facts as they are, called personally at these headquarters and announced that in all their wide experience, in courtesy, efficiency and gentlemanly conduct, the Buffalo policemen were far ahead of those of any other police department. As one representative of a prominent New York paper put it: “It will be a title of honor for an officer to be able to say ‘I was a member of the Buffalo City Police Force during the Pan-American Exposition.’” The local press also, on many occasions, commended your work, and as you all know, home praise is never given if not actually deserved. We are proud of you. We are proud of the record that you have so honorably and nobly won. In the many trying and perplexing situations and problems that have confronted you in the past you have never been found wanting, but were always equal to the occasion.

                          CONRAD DIEHL,
                          CHARLES A. RUPP,
                          JOHN H. COOPER,
          Board of Police of the City of Buffalo.


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