Police Superintendent’s Report [excerpt]
C B .
S ’ O ,
January 23, 1902.
To the Honorable, Board of Police Commissioners:
have the honor to forward my Annual Report for the year 1901 and
I am pleased to state that the complimentary notices in the Press
and the commendation of personal communications to the Superintendent
of Police bear testimony to the efficiency and discipline of the
Buffalo Police Department.
The year 1901 will be memorable in the
history of the City of Buffalo. The Pan-American Exposition in its
glorious beauty, and the cowardly assassination of President McKinley
has made Buffalo a historical centre, known to every city and hamlet
on the face of the Globe.
The Pan-American Exposition attracted millions
of strangers, and notwithstanding that upon many occasions the population
of our city was nearly doubled, it is most gratifying to report
that there was less crime committed in the city during the six months
of the Exposition, than during the corresponding time of any other
year since this Department was organized. The primary precautions
taken to guard against an influx of criminals from all parts of
the world, as well as the individual efforts and the personal pride
of every member of the force to protect life and property, at the
same time respecting the personal liberties of our citizens and
visitors, is responsible for the marvelous record of this Department,
 not only during the Exposition
itself, but after the gates were closed.
Knowing the immense amount of work that
would be required of the Force during the Exposition, in protecting
the lives and property of citizens and visitors form the depredation
of all classes of crooks and thieves whom we knew would centre in
Buffalo, and with the idea of not increasing the hours of service
of the patrolmen, Your Honorable Body asked the Common Council for
an appropriation sufficient to increase the patrol force by 150
men, for seven months. With this addition it was expected that the
service of the force in three platoons could be maintained, but
the Common Council in their judgment refused your request for 150
patrolmen, but did make an appropriation allowing the employment
of 75 extra patrolmen for a period of six months. This addition
made it impossible to continue the Force upon three platoons, furnish
all the necessary permanent details and provide for emergent details,
and therefore upon May 19th, by the order of Your Honorable Board
I placed the Force upon an emergent two-platoon system. A schedule
was prepared for the tour of duties with the object of utilizing
the services of every man, and at the same time arranging for the
care, comfort and health of the Force, not over-working the men,
and giving all sufficient rest between tours of duty. This schedule
was a decided innovation and an improvement upon what is known as
the two-platoon system, and was quite satisfactory to the Force.
A table explanatory of the schedule will be found in another portion
of this report. It was intended to return to the three-platoon system
on the first of November, but the two-platoon system was continued
over the general election, and on the fifth day of November the
Force was returned to the three-platoon system.
The Exposition grounds where [sic]
wholly within the boundaries of the Thirteenth Precinct, and for
the purpose of having at all times a sufficient number of patrolmen
within the immediate vicinity of the Exposition, Your Honorable
Body erected an annex station for No. 13 in a portion of the Buffalo
Railway Co’s building  at the
corner of West Amherst street and Elmwood avenue. During the Exposition
the Thirteenth Precinct and the Thirteenth Precinct annex were commanded
at various times by Captain John Burfeind, Captain Samuel H. Notter
and Captain Frank J. Killeen. As the Exposition Company had a most
excellent police force, organized, drilled and disciplined under
that veteran police officer and most efficient commandant, Col.
John Byrne, our force did not enter the grounds officially except
upon special occasions when acting as escort for some organization
marching into the grounds, and upon the closing night, the 2nd of
November when it became necessary for Col. Byrne to call upon our
force for assistance, the Pan-American Exposition Co. having reduced
its available force to numbers insufficient to cope with the very
disorderly element. Col. Byrne and I held a consultation in the
afternoon of November 2nd, upon this matter, and I ordered a special
detail of 100 men, part in the sixth and part in the thirteenth
precincts, upon which Col. Byrne could call if necessary. About
12:45 A. M. Nov. 3d, Col. Byrne sent word to me at the thirteenth
precinct police station annex, that he would like to have the Buffalo
Police Force go upon the Exposition grounds; I, with a body of sixty
men under the command of Captain Killeen and under the supervision
of Inspector Martin, entered the Exposition grounds and found a
riotous crowd of some 2500 men bent upon destroying everything in
sight. It required but a few moments to place our men, and at twenty
minutes after 1 o’clock, this turbulent element had been cleared
from the grounds and order prevailed.
Immediately upon the closing of the Pan-American
Exposition gates No. 13 police station annex was abandoned, and
the officers from other stations temporarily attached to No. 13
were returned to their several precincts. On the 15th of November
the Pan-American Exposition Co. mustered out the remnant of their
police force and called upon this Department to furnish special
protection for the buildings, and property upon the grounds. A detail
of 21 men was assigned to the thirteenth precinct for this 
purpose, and continued until the property of the Exposition Co.,
through legal proceedings was taken possession of by the Sheriff,
when our detail was relieved.
In addition to the large detail of patrolmen
made to the thirteenth precinct Your Honorable Board also placed
a patrol wagon in the Thirteenth Precinct during the six months
of the Pan-American Exposition.
The work of the Detective Bureau, in charge
of the veteran police officer, Assistant Superintendent Patrick
V. Cusack, and the precinct detectives merit special mention, and
it is to their constant and untiring efforts that the city was kept
clear of thieves and swindlers during the Exposition.
In addition to the regular Headquarter
Detective Force of fifteen officers, I detailed to Assistant Superintendent
Cusack thirty officers from the patrol force. In addition we had
twenty detectives from the police forces of other cities, and a
corps of five special Secret Service men that reported to the Superintendent
I directed that no professional or known
thief should be allowed to remain in this city, and issued instructions
to arrest all of this class of individuals on sight. One hundred
and eighty professional and a large number of small fry thieves
were arrested and disposed of; the lesser class being brought before
the Morning Justices, convicted and committed to the Penitentiary.
The professional men were all brought to Headquarters, measured
and photographed by the Bertillon system, arraigned before the Police
Justice and disposed of by being committed to the Penitentiary for
terms from 30 to 180 days, or ordered out of the city. A list of
names and records of these people will be found in another part
of this report. Each morning all thieves arrested were brought to
the Superintendent’s office and exhibited to the Headquarter Detective
Force, all of the Detective Sergeants, Special Detail men, and Detective
Sergeants from out of town. In each case the history of the thief
and his entire pedigree was given to the officers assembled, and
 if the thief was not held
by the Justice, he was ordered out of the city, and escorted to
the depot to take the first train. The manner of our disposing of
the professional thief was soon communicated to the entire fraternity
and was the means of keeping away a great many who, we had been
informed, were making their way to Buffalo. While there is no doubt
these thieves plied their avocations to a certain degree, there
was only one case of professional pickpocketing recorded during
the summer, two pickpockets successfully worked the Elmwood avenue
cars part of one afternoon and evening and succeeded in getting
away with four or five watches. It is thought they were part of
a gang that made their headquarters at Niagara Falls and took the
risk of running into Buffalo, doing a job and leaving immediately.
There were several cases of “Con” games worked, but it was noticeable
that none were successful on citizens, rural visitors being the
victims, who were in many cases unable to give a reliable description
of the thieves. I think that the reason our citizens were immune
to being robbed is largely due to the precautionary circulars distributed
from these Headquarters early in the season, giving a description
of the tricks of thieves and their way of working. A copy of the
circular is published with this report, as is also a copy of a circular
issued from the Superintendent’s office relative to street traffic
and its control.
The detailed amount of lost and stolen
property for the year will be found in the table in another part
of this report, but I call your attention especially to the report
of lost and stolen property for the six months of 1900 and 1901.
The number of arrests for the year 1901
was 25,057, being a decrease of 3,209 from the preceding year. I
call your attention to the disposition of cases brought before the
Morning Justices for the following offenses: There were arrested
for intoxication 11,011, discharged 43, sentence suspended upon
9,014. There were arrested on the charge of disorderly conduct 4,566,
discharged 232, and sentence suspended upon 2,691.
The force attended 833 fires, and fire
alarms were turned on  by 160
officers. The force extinguished 44 fires without sending in an
alarm. There were 1704 doors and windows of business places found
open, and secured, and the patrol wagons made 12,291 runs. The hourly
report from officers was 895,000. The total amount of property stolen
was $63,227.29, and of this amount there was recovered $48,841.85.
There was property lost to the value of $17,678.83 and there was
property found to the value of $11,866.53. During the year 1901
we kept the bicycles lost and stolen separated from the other property,
as many bicycles are lost or stolen through carelessness of the
owner, I made it a rule that no bicycle reported should be considered
stolen unless the owner had taken the precaution to secure it by
locking it, or placing it in a place of safety. There were reported
bicycles stolen to the value of $920.00 and we recovered bicycles
valued at $1,140.00. There were bicycles reported lost to the value
of $12,254.50 and bicycles found to the value of $9,521.50. These
figures are included in the totals of property stolen and property
President McKinley arrived in Buffalo on
a special train over the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern Ry., at
6:00 P. M., Sept. 4th, and the special train went direct to the
Exposition grounds. At the railway gate of the Exposition the President
and his party were met by the Fourth Brigade National Guard Signal
Corps mounted—twenty mounted men of this department and Detective-Sergeants
Patrick J. Devine, Lewis W. Henafelt, John J. Geary and Albert Solomon.
The Detective Sergeants’ instructions were to keep near the President’s
person during his visit to Buffalo.
The President was escorted through the
Exposition grounds to Mr. John G. Milburn’s house, which was his
Official Residence while the guest of the Pan-American Exposition
Thursday, September 5th, was the President’s
day at the Pan-American Exposition grounds, and he was escorted
to the grounds by the same mounted escort that met him September
4th. The instructions of the mounted detail was to be in 
attendance upon the President during his stay within the city, but
after the 5th, at the request of Mrs. McKinley, the detail of mounted
police was reduced to eight men.
On Friday, September 6th, the President
again visited the Exposition grounds, and also made a trip to Niagara
Falls, returning to the Exposition in the afternoon of that day
for the purpose of holding a public reception in the Temple of Music.
At 4:20 P. M., Friday, September 6th, I received a telephone message
from Mr. James L. Quackenbush informing me that the President had
been shot, and asking that I immediately send detectives and police
officers to the Pan-American Exposition. He also told me that the
assassin of the President was under arrest. Orders were issued for
all available men to proceed at once to the Exposition grounds,
and I dispatched some of our Headquarter Detectives. At 4:30 P.
M., in company with Inspector John Martin, I drove to the Exposition
grounds, and when on Delaware Avenue, near Barker street, I met
a carriage in which was Detective-Sergeants John J. Geary and Albert
Solomon, Capt. Vallely of the Exposition Detective Force, Major
Robertson, Deputy Commandant of the Exposition Police Force and
the assassin. Immediately I retraced my steps, proceeding to the
City Hall in search of the District Attorney.
I found that the District Attorney’s office
had been apprised of the assassination of the President, and hastening
to Police Headquarters I found that the assassin was in the Headquarter
prison department, and Mr. Haller, Assistant District Attorney,
present ready to proceed with an investigation. The prisoner was
brought before Assistant District Attorney Haller and myself. He
gave his name as Fred Nieman, said that he was born in Detroit,
was 28 years old, that he was an anarchist, had killed the President
and believed that he had done his duty and was glad of it. Shortly
after the examination of the prisoner had begun, Mr. Thomas Penney,
District Attorney, came to Headquarters and took charge of the investigation.
The prisoner was at all times cool and collected, showing no indication
of feelings of remorse  or
sorrow for the crime he had committed, repeatedly stating that he
had done his duty and wasn’t sorry for it and realizing fully the
penalty of the crime upon conviction.
In the statement made by the prisoner he
said his name was not Fred Nieman, but Leon F. Czolgosz, and gave
the history of himself and his family.
Naturally the people were greatly excited;
the streets were crowded with people threatening to assault Police
Headquarters, take the prisoner from custody and lynch him. As soon
as word had been received that the President had been shot, I ordered
a heavy detail of patrolmen to report to Police Headquarters and
all the streets within two blocks of Police Headquarters, was patroled
and carefully guarded. One or two demonstrations were made to break
the police lines, and although within the breast of every patrolman
was the same feeling that existed with the excited citizens that
the assassin should be summarily dealt with, they felt that the
majesty of the law must be upheld and that the prisoner and the
property of the city would be defended at all hazards. The bulletins
issued by the surgeons in charge of the President, that the President
was resting comfortably and that there was a possibility of his
recovery, quieted the people, and at one o’clock A. M., there were
practically no more people on the streets than ordinarily. Day and
night we kept a heavy patrol force about Police Headquarters. The
favorable reports from time to time of the President’s improved
condition had a most beneficial effect upon our citizens generally,
changing their thoughts from vengeance upon the assassin, to hopeful
prayers for the President’s recovery, and that justice should be
meted out to the prisoner as provided under the constitution.
On the evening of the first examination
of the prisoner, Dr. Joseph Fowler, Surgeon of Police, suggested
to the District Attorney that an investigation as to Czolgosz’ sanity
should be immediately begun, and each day thereafter Doctors Fowler,
Putnam and Crego examined Czolgosz, and the prison guards in 
charge of him carefully watched his conduct and made report, thereon.
There was at no time during his confinement that he showed the least
indication of insanity or an unbalanced mind. He was always cool,
collected, fully realizing the enormity of the crime he had committed.
Although the city was quiet, and the excitement
incident upon the first news of the President’s assassination had
become normal, the precautionary measures for the protection of
Police Headquarters and the prisoner were not relaxed, except that
the Reserve Force at Station No. 1 was somewhat reduced.
On Thursday, September 12th, the President’s
condition was not considered favorable, signs of unrest began to
appear, and muttered threats against the assassin were heard occasionally.
The reserve at Police Station No. 1, was again increased, and the
patrol posts in the vicinity of Police Headquarters were doubled.
No charge had been laid against Czolgosz,
and by reason of the Erie County Jail undergoing repairs, and the
jail prisoners being confined temporarily at the Erie County Penitentiary,
Czolgosz was detained at Police Headquarters at the request of the
District Attorney, while making his investigation and examining
witnesses. The daily bulletins of the Surgeons, in charge of the
President’s case, continued to be unfavorable; with threatened assaults
upon the Police Headquarters building for the purpose of obtaining
possession of the prisoner, that he might be summarily dealt with
by the people, led the Police Commissioners to question the advisability
of retaining him at Headquarters longer, not that they had any fear
that any mob could successfully attack the building and release
the prisoner, they knowing that we had a sufficient number of men
to successfully cope and defeat any mob that should make the attempt,
but knowing too, that any attempt would result disastrously to the
attacking party, and possible many innocent persons would suffer,
it was decided on consultation with the District Attorney to remove
the prisoner. This was done on Friday morning, September 13th, at
eleven o’clock and he was taken to the Erie County Penitentiary,
by  Assistant Superintendent,
Patrick V. Cusack, and placed in charge of Mr. Alexander Sloan,
Keeper of the Penitentiary, under an arrangement previously made
between Mr. Sloan and District Attorney Thomas Penney.
The ridiculous and sensational stories
that he was smuggled from Police Headquarters in the disguise of
a police officer, and taken away in a patrol wagon, were untrue
in every particular. As has been stated above, he was removed from
Headquarters in daylight, at eleven o’clock in the morning. Mr.
Cusack did not even place handcuffs upon the prisoner. There was
no change in his garments from those worn when he was brought to
Headquarters, with the exception of a clean shirt and a hat that
was provided for him, his hat having been lost in the Temple of
His removal from Police Headquarters, and
knowledge of where he had been taken was strictly guarded, his removal
being known only to Police Commissioner Rupp, the Superintendent
and Officer William Jordan.
At the Penitentiary he was placed in the
women’s dungeon and no one in the Penitentiary, with the exception
of Mr. Sloan and one or two trusted assistants, knew who was the
prisoner confined in that dungeon. Czolgosz was detained at the
Penitentiary until after the death of the President, and the remains
had been removed from Buffalo, and until five o’clock on Monday
afternoon, when he was brought to the Erie County Jail, and from
thence conducted through the underground passage to the City and
County hall, and arraigned before County Judge Emery, Czolgosz having
been indicted Monday morning, September 16th, by the Grand Jury,
then in session, charged with murder in the first degree. Czolgosz
was detained at the Erie County Jail until his conviction and removal
to Auburn State Prison.
In the removal of the prisoner from Police
Headquarters to the Penitentiary there was a strange coincidence
in the fact that the coach driver who had brought the prisoner from
the Exposition grounds to Police Headquarters, also drove the coach
that removed him to the Penitentiary. 
The stories that Czolgosz while confined
at Police Headquarters was fed sumptuously every day, that he was
allowed to receive flowers, fruits and delicacies, and that newspaper
reporters were allowed to interview him, are positively untrue.
Czolgosz received the same food provided for other prisoners, except
that upon direction of the police surgeon after two or three days
confinement his diet was reduced. His breakfast consisted of potato,
bread and butter and coffee. His dinner consisted of one kind of
meat, one vegetable, bread and butter and coffee, and his supper
the same as breakfast. Of this food he had a sufficient supply,
and usually ate more than an ordinary prisoner, he having a very
keen appetite. He was not provided with cigars, although having
been a smoker, the surgeon directed that he be permitted to use
a limited amount of tobacco daily. The treatment given Czolgosz
was no different from that received by other prisoners, except that
he was in solitary confinement, guarded day and night.
On Friday night, September 13th, when the
unfavorable reports of the President’s condition was announced,
and all hope of his recovery abandoned, the reserves at No. 1 station
house were doubled, and all streets leading to Police Headquarters
heavily patrolled. General Samuel M. Welch, Jr., commanding the
4th Brigade National Guard, placed in the Armory of the 65th Regiment
two companies of the 65th Regiment, and in the 74th Regiment Armory
two companies of the 74th Regiment, to protect the State property
in case of an outbreak. Around all Bulletin Boards reporting the
President’s condition, large crowds assembled, hoping the next report
would be favorable to the President’s recovery. At 11.35 P. M.,
when the last Bulletin was posted announcing the President’s death,
the crowds quietly dispersed. Vengeance was turned to sorrow; it
was as if death had entered every household. Sympathy for the bereaved
widow, expressions of love and honor for the martyred President
were upon every lip. The pall had fallen, obscuring the tragedy
and its author—Czolgosz was forgotten.
The President after being shot was removed
to the Emergency  Hospital
on the Exposition grounds, and then to the residence of John G.
Milburn. A detail of Police was kept at the Milburn house. The streets
for one block in each direction were roped off and no vehicles allowed
to approach the house. In addition to the police detail there was
a detachment from the 14th U. S. Infantry.
It was necessary to maintain a Police detail
at the Milburn house from the time the President’s remains were
removed until the 1st of December. From daylight until dark, every
day, the camera and kodak fiends were out in force, and the souvenir
hunter was ready to destroy the house. Pebbles from the driveway
were picked up, leaves that dropped from the trees taken, and one
souvenir hunter with more nerve than the others appeared with a
mallet and chisel and requested the officer on duty that he be allowed
to remove a few bricks from the building. It is unnecessary to say
this request was denied, and nothing was destroyed either upon the
grounds or about the house.
On Sunday morning, September 15th, funeral
services were held at the Milburn house, and the remains of the
President were escorted to the City Hall. As the remains were removed
from the hearse a severe rainstorm with heavy wind occurred. The
streets North and South of the City Hall, beyond the lines established
by the Police, and the streets running East and West were a mass
of people awaiting an opportunity to view the remains of the late
President. At 1.20 P. M. the lines were opened to permit the people
to pass into the City Hall and view the remains. The people were
formed in two ranks, entering the City Hall from Franklin Street,
passing on either side of the casket and through the City Hall to
Delaware Avenue. The doors of the City Hall were closed at 11 P.
M., and it was estimated that between ninety and one hundred thousand
people had passed the remains of the President.
Although the crowd of people within the
vicinity of the City Hall during the ten hours was probably larger
than ever gathered in Buffalo within the same area, and the line
of people at times  was fully
one mile in length, there was no unseemly crowding or noisy demonstration.
The crowd at all times was under perfect control of the Police officers.
At seven o’clock Monday morning, Sept.
16th, the remains of President McKinley, under military and police
escort, were placed upon a Pennsylvania R. R. Special, to be taken
to Washington, D. C.
Czolgosz was placed on trial at 10 A. M.,
Monday, September 23rd. The Jury was sworn in before three o’clock
P. M. The prosecution was most ably conducted by the Hon. Thomas
Penney, District Attorney for Erie County, and the defence was in
the able hands of the Hon. Robert C. Titus and the Hon. Loren L.
Lewis, former Justices, of the Supreme Court, State of New York.
On Tuesday afternoon, September 24th, the
case was submitted to the Jury, the Jury retired at 3:51, and at
4:23 returned a verdict of murder in the first degree.
President William McKinley was assassinated
in the Temple of Music at the Pan-American Exposition grounds at
4:10 P. M., September 6th; he died at 2.15 A. M., September 14th,
and was buried at 3.30 P. M. September 19th, at Canton, Ohio.
Leon F. Czolgosz, his assassin, was indicted
on Monday, September 16th. The trial was held in part III of the
Criminal Term, Supreme Court, City and County Hall, September 23-24,
the Hon. Truman C. White, Justice of the Supreme Court presiding,
and he was electrocuted in the State prison at Auburn, N. Y., at
7.12 A. M., Tuesday, October 29th.
I herewith append a letter
from the Committee on Ceremonies during President McKinley’s visit
to the Pan-American Exposition.
, N. Y., September
S. B ,
of Police, Buffalo, N. Y.
D opportunity to
observe the work of the Police under circumstances calculated to
try the discipline and good judgment of a majority of the members
of the Department.
S —During the ceremonies of the late
President, on September 15th and 16th, 1901, the undersigned had
We have no hesitation in saying that so
great a crowd was never better handled.
We wish to thank you for the admirable
and judicious arrangements planned by you, and to commend the excellent
spirit in which the work was carried out by the officers and men
of the Department. It certainly showed a high state of discipline
Every citizen of this city has just reason
to be proud of a Department capable of such long continued and sustained
effort without the occurrence of a single mishap, or accident of
THOMAS W. SYMONS
EDWARD R. RICE
LOUIS L. BABCOCK
JAMES L. QUACKENBUSH
LAWRENCE D. RUMSEY
GEORGE S. METCALFE
The following address issued
by Your Honorable Board to the Force was duly appreciated by every
member of the Force.
P C B ,
C ’ O ,
B , N
To the Police Force:—
The Pan-American Exposition
which created the emergency causing the force to be placed upon
the two-platoon system has 
closed its gates, and the Superintendent has issued orders returning
the Force to the three-platoon system on Wednesday morning, the
Although the duty performed during the
past six months was nominally under the two-platoon system, the
Superintendent, when making the assignments, bore in mind, as he
always does, the care and comfort of the force. Knowing that it
was necessary to preserve the health and strength of the men in
order to meet any extraordinary call to continuous service, he prepared
a schedule for patrol and reserve duty that would require the fewest
number of hours possible for efficient police work.
The Board of Police congratulates and hereby
thanks Superintendent William S. Bull for unremitting attention
to the duties of his office, which have been more arduous, for the
signal ability displayed in his direction of the work of the force,
and the high standard of excellence maintained therein, and the
magnificent service so efficiently given the city.
The unqualified commendations of the Board
is [sic] extended to the rank and file for the efficient,
excellent, prompt and courteous manner in which they have performed
their many arduous duties during the Pan-American Exposition period,
and it is with pride and pleasure the Board states that at no time
has a serious complaint of inefficient or discourteous conduct on
the part of any officer been made. On the contrary, words of praise
were received from all quarters. Many of the prominent visitors,
citizens, public officers of the Government, of the States and Cities,
personally complimented the Department for the efficiency, general
conduct and appearance of the force.
During the trying times from the date the
President was shot, September 6th, until the morning of September
16th, when his honored remains were removed from the City, representatives
of the leading journals of the Union were in Buffalo in large numbers.
These men who in the interest of their papers are at all events
of national importance, and are constantly in contact with the police
of all great cities, and whose training and business is 
to report facts as they are, called personally at these headquarters
and announced that in all their wide experience, in courtesy, efficiency
and gentlemanly conduct, the Buffalo policemen were far ahead of
those of any other police department. As one representative of a
prominent New York paper put it: “It will be a title of honor for
an officer to be able to say ‘I was a member of the Buffalo City
Police Force during the Pan-American Exposition.’” The local press
also, on many occasions, commended your work, and as you all know,
home praise is never given if not actually deserved. We are proud
of you. We are proud of the record that you have so honorably and
nobly won. In the many trying and perplexing situations and problems
that have confronted you in the past you have never been found wanting,
but were always equal to the occasion.
CHARLES A. RUPP,
JOHN H. COOPER,
of Police of the City of Buffalo.