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“. . . and for the man, if it is just to call him man, that struck the blow, only a single excuse exists, that his brain had been turned by the dark conspiracies in which he was involved, and that it was at the instigation of a fanaticism excited to the pitch of insanity that the deed was done.”

—— Alexander K. McClure and Charles Morris, The Authentic Life of William McKinley, 1901
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“. . . only some fiend in human form, in whose heart every instinct of manhood was strangled, could plot or execute the murder of the President of the United States.”

—— Alexander K. McClure and Charles Morris, The Authentic Life of William McKinley, 1901
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“It is unfortunate that the name of an assassin must be linked with that of his victim, and in that way perpetuated; yet we are sure that whenever mentioned it will be only with reprobation for his conduct and to hold up his name to execration.”

—— Alexander K. McClure and Charles Morris, The Authentic Life of William McKinley, 1901
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“It is due the State of New York to say the assassin was handled from the day of his crime to the moment of his disappearance in quicklime, with eminent good sense, perfect propriety, the inflexible policy being to spurn aside all sensationalism, have the duty of the State performed without hesitation or consenting in any way to the wretched sentimentalism giving murderers a promise of fame, however miserable.”

—— Murat Halstead, The Illustrious Life of William McKinley, Our Martyred President, 1901
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“Czolgosz is one of a large and growing class who suffer from Plutophobia.”

—— Solon Lauer, Mark Hanna, 1901
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“In many respects he became a complete realization of degeneracy.”

—— C. E. Banks and L. Armstrong, Theodore Roosevelt, Twenty-Sixth President of the United States, 1901
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“The manhood of the average American will not permit him, even in imagination, to descend to the murky depths in which must grovel so vile a reptile as he who assaulted our chief magistrate.”

—— anonymous, Medical Counselor, Sept. 1901
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“In Chicago he would have been lynched in a moment.”

—— anonymous, Chicago Daily News, 6 Sept. 1901
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“. . . he appears to be a strange creature of moods, a dreamy, uncanny sort of individual in whom the quality of imagination has been abnormally developed.”

—— anonymous, St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 6 Sept. 1901
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“It is idle to denounce the man who committed the crime. If he is sane words cannot paint the heinous character of his offense against human and divine law. If he is demented, the pathos, the sorrow and the tragedy still remain. . . .”

—— anonymous, Buffalo Review, 7 Sept. 1901
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“He did what it was his duty to do, and we honor him, while personally thinking his effort might better have been employed across the ocean upon some crowned head.”

—— anonymous, Iowa State Register, 7 Sept. 1901
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“He is probably some German lunatic and fool.”

—— Pedro Esteve, News and Courier, 7 Sept. 1901
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“So far as can be ascertained Czolgosz is of a piece with all the Anarchist type of murderers. His one overmastering trait is vanity. He is just the kind of vermin the Anarchist master spirits use as tools for their crimes. Like all of them, he is a coward at heart.”

—— anonymous, Chicago Sunday Tribune, 8 Sept. 1901
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“I respect the man who did the shooting as much as I respect any soldier who fought for his country.”

—— William Cowell, Chicago Sunday Tribune, 8 Sept. 1901
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“He was such a timid boy, so afraid of everything. Why, he was the biggest coward you ever saw in your life.”

—— Katherine Metzfaltr Czolgosz, Chicago Sunday Tribune, 8 Sept. 1901
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“He said anarchy was his religion.”

—— Benedict Rosinski, Chicago Sunday Tribune, 8 Sept. 1901
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“He was a great coward . . . and I am surprised he had the nerve to do as he did.”

—— Anton Zwolinski, Chicago Sunday Tribune, 8 Sept. 1901
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“He was a coward, and I don’t see where he got the nerve to shoot any one.”

—— John Czolgosz, Cleveland Leader, 8 Sept. 1901
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“Those who knew him cannot understand how he ever plucked up the nerve to do his daring deed.”

—— anonymous, Iowa State Register, 8 Sept. 1901
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“He had the appearance of one who, while not particularly proud of what he had done, was satisfied with his act.”

—— anonymous, Buffalo Courier, 9 Sept. 1901
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“I think Czolgosz was one of those down-trodden men who see all which the rich inflict upon the poor, who think of it, who brood over it and in despair resolve to strike a blow they think for the good of their fellow men.”

—— Emma Goldman, Albuquerque Daily Citizen, 10 Sept. 1901
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“It is to be regretted that Czolgosz did not seek notoriety by going over Niagara in a barrel instead of shooting the President in Buffalo.”

—— anonymous, St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 10 Sept. 1901
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“The man who shot our President is probably the miserable instrument of stronger minds.”

—— Harriet Hubbard Ayer, World, 10 Sept. 1901
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“Anarchists look at Czolgosz as a man of action. In their eyes he is a hero. He has done something more than to sit at a table and drink beer and talk. A man like Czolgosz does more good to the cause of Anarchy than 1,000 pages of written matter.”

—— Phillip Scherer, World, 10 Sept. 1901
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“He ought to be strung up.”

—— Michael Czolgosz, Chicago Daily Tribune, 11 Sept. 1901
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“Czolgosz seems to be a typical anarchist, blindly determined to kill a ruler because he is a ruler, and reckless of the consequences to himself.”

—— anonymous, Christian Observer, 11 Sept. 1901
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“Paul Czolgosz, the father, always predicted that Leon would die on the gallows.”

—— Albert Lemanski, Daily Picayune, 11 Sept. 1901
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“In my country that wretch Czolgosz would receive the extreme penalty,—death by slow torture.”

—— Wu Ting-Fang, New York Times, 11 Sept. 1901
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“Before the commission of his dastardly crime the wretch Czolgosz was but an atom in that vast aggregate of millions called the people; today his name is one for lawless folk to conjure with; a name which makes crowned heads shake with palsy and presidents of republics look to the doubling of their bodyguard.”

—— anonymous, Catholic Union and Times, 12 Sept. 1901
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“There is no reason to believe that Czolgosz is insane; he is simply a fanatic, and believes he has done a grand thing which will give him a great name.”

—— anonymous, Independent, 12 Sept. 1901
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“He is described by those who know him as a lazy, cowardly, easily led young man of mediocre intellect.”

—— anonymous, Ohio Farmer, 12 Sept. 1901
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“The Polish Anarchist, Czolgosz, who attempted to assassinate the President, was hardly more sensitive to the motives to which men ordinarily respond than one of the lions in the building near where the President fell. Such a man has far more in common with the beast than humanity.”

—— anonymous, Watchman, 12 Sept. 1901
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“Leon’s deed is giving us terrible worry and we feel that he is deserving of any punishment that may be inflicted.”

—— Paul Czolgosz, Cleveland Plain Dealer, 13 Sept. 1901
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“No, Leon Czolgosz, alias Nieman, is not insane, but is a pronounced Anarchist of the bloodiest and most cunning type.”

—— O. S. Deming, Daily Public Ledger, 13 Sept. 1901
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“If there ever was an instance where lynch law could be consistently applied, it is in the case of Czolgosz, for his treacherous attempt to assassination the President.”

—— anonymous, Journal-Advance, 13 Sept. 1901
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“. . . this particular creature of blood had no motive which ordinary human beings could ever share.”

—— anonymous, Madison County Times, 13 Sept. 1901
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“If I had been there, I would have blown the scoundrel to atoms, if I had a pistol.”

—— Henry R. Naylor, Madison County Times, 13 Sept. 1901
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“In truth, Czolgosz is not more guilty than those who taught him.”

—— anonymous, Wheatland World, 13 Sept. 1901
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“He must have been crazy.”

—— William McKinley, Afro-American-Ledger, 14 Sept. 1901
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“Czolgosz’ guilt is clear and unquestioned.”

—— anonymous, Buffalo Courier, 14 Sept. 1901
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“In God’s name, hang the man as he deserves!”

—— M. Woolsey Stryker, Congregationalist and Christian World, 14 Sept. 1901
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“Czolgosz is not a fanatic. He is not crazy. He is not even a fool. He is the perfect type of the anarchist.”

—— anonymous, Lafayette Gazette, 14 Sept. 1901
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“I believe he should be burned at the stake and thus set an example for other Anarchists of the country.”

—— anonymous, Lewiston Daily Sun, 14 Sept. 1901
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“It will be hard for the criminologists to bring him under any of their classifications of innate criminality.”

—— anonymous, Medical News, 14 Sept. 1901
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“. . . a young, smooth-faced workingman of foreign type, not, if one may judge by the photographs, of peculiarly repulsive or degenerate cast of features, but not notably intelligent in appearance.”

—— anonymous, Outlook, 14 Sept. 1901
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“I can’t say whether he is an anarchist or not. He may call himself an anarchist, but that does not mean necessarily that he understands anarchy.”

—— Emma Goldman, Public, 14 Sept. 1901
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“I do not believe Czolgosz is an anarchist, or if he is he is a crazy one.”

—— Abraham Isaak, Public, 14 Sept. 1901
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             Most infamously Czolgosz acted.
             Can he pay the debt contracted
With the paltry little life he calls his own?
             Killed, for fancied fault detected,
             Man by million men elected.
Such conceit as this of his is seldom known.
                   Soon, Czolgosz, too, will be no more,
                   And God will even up the score.

—— Grif Alexander, Pittsburg Press, 15 Sept. 1901
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“He must be a fool!”

—— Waldeck Czolgosz, Cleveland Leader, 16 Sept. 1901
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“The poor fellow. He could not have known what he was doing.”

—— William McKinley, Minneapolis Journal, 16 Sept. 1901
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“. . . if there is any power in a world’s detestation, it will be a poor sort of Hell that is not yawning for Czolgosz. There is no use for a Hell that doesn’t want him and his sort.”

—— anonymous, Ohinemuri Gazette, 16 Sept. 1901
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“. . . one of the vilest of villains.”

—— anonymous, Sherbrooke Examiner, 16 Sept. 1901
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“The one word that seems to fully describe him is that he is a ‘degenerate’—vicious from his earliest childhood, and made more so by harsh treatment—stupid, gluttonous, and knowing no more of the laws of our country than to believe that the murder of the President would overturn the Government.”

—— anonymous, Christian Observer, 18 Sept. 1901
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“Hang him in a public square, before the gaze of the people, with face uncovered. When choked to death, let his corpse hang for twenty-four hours; then cut him down and burn his miserable remains in carbolic acid, so that not a speck of his vile dust will remain on American soil. . . .”

—— Mrs. S., World, 18 Sept. 1901
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“Mr. McKinley’s last sublime public utterance was one of forgiveness for his assassin. When the anarchist was struggling with the guard, the President, forgetting his wounds, cried: ‘Let no man harm him.’ He counselled moderation and expressed pity for the assassin. We will not go that far. The man deserves no more pity than any other cowardly criminal. He deserves still less the exaltation that passionate and revengeful people would give him above the common herd of murderers.”

—— anonymous, Collier’s Weekly, 21 Sept. 1901
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“He appeared to be a kindly disposed German boy, and had a decided Teutonic complexion that could not be mistaken.”

—— John D. Wells, Collier’s Weekly, 21 Sept. 1901
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“Out of a foul and malignant heart came the impulse to betray and murder the nation’s head.”

—— anonymous, Congregationalist and Christian World, 21 Sept. 1901
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“No, Czolgosz is not an anarchist; he is a nihilist—or insane. He will never be executed; mark my words.”

—— George Bradshaw, Daily Picayune, 21 Sept. 1901
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“. . . a vile thing having the appearance of a man, a Frankenstein monster whose bread and salt came from the country he so sorrowfully afflicted.”

—— anonymous, Philadelphia Medical Journal, 21 Sept. 1901
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“. . . one whose narrow brain had soaked in the poisonous teachings of the offscourings of Europe.”

—— anonymous, Saturday Evening Post, 21 Sept. 1901
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“His name is foremost in every public print in the world, familiar to children who have never heard of the greatest lawgivers, conquerors, reformers.”

—— Herbert Maxwell, Spectator, 21 Sept. 1901
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“. . . Czolgosz seems to be only a type and executor of opinions founded upon social conditions unsatisfactory to, and oppressive of, certain classes of the people.”

—— George Scoville, Atlanta Constitution, 22 Sept. 1901
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“. . . he is not a voluble chap.”

—— Loran L. Lewis, Burlington Hawk-Eye, 22 Sept. 1901
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“He does not appear to be of the familiar type of anarchists, nor is he good-looking enough to attract the second glance of one meeting him.”

—— anonymous, Daily Picayune, 22 Sept. 1901
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“We shall fail to comprehend how the slayer could do his deed; but at least we may see that he is as alien to our humanity as he was to our institutions, and that he need not be reckoned one of us. A little relief is in that.”

—— anonymous, Puck, 25 Sept. 1901
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Thou stinkest in the nostrils of the world
     As putrid offal on the shoe of man.
Assassin base! we loathe, yet pity thee,
     An pray God’s judgment may as generous be.

—— Milo Deyo, Burlington Hawk-Eye, 27 Sept. 1901
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“When we said we thought him to be insane we spoke the truth. No man could act toward us, his counsel and helpers, as he has done unless his senses were hampered in some way.”

—— Loran L. Lewis, Afro-American-Ledger, 28 Sept. 1901
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“His mind may have been to a certain extent unhinged by fanaticism, but it was clear to all that he was in complete possession of his faculties, and quite understood the consequences of his actions.”

—— anonymous, Tablet, 28 Sept. 1901
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“The assassin is in the hands of the law,—let him suffer the dues of the law, in full measure, pressed down and running over. Give him prison fare and no more. Let him sleep on a hard plank and no better. And by all means keep away from him the silly women that will ache to bring bouquets to him.”

—— anonymous, American Law Review, Sept.-Oct. 1901
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“. . . in conversation and appearance he was more intelligent than the average Polish laborer . . . .”

—— anonymous, American Journal of Insanity, Oct. 1901
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“Of all the thousands of people upon those grounds, this one was perhaps the most insignificant in physical and mental equipment, in character, in capacity—a mere worm crawling in the dust. Yet he had in his perverted heart the venomous purpose, held in his hand the tiny instrument, which were to set the world a-weeping.”

—— Walter Wellman, American Monthly Review of Reviews, Oct. 1901
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“It was hard to realize that this country harbored a single individual so void of human instincts that he should attempt to kill one whose every act in life ought to insure him against harm by the vilest human character.”

—— anonymous, Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers Monthly Journal, Oct. 1901
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What fiend is this whose vengeful heart
     Could lodge such hate to foul man’s name?
It can’t be man that did the deed,
     The devil ’twas that lit the flame
That fired his soul, in friendship’s guise,
To kill the brave, the good, the wise!

—— anonymous, Cambrian, Oct. 1901
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“The assassin is guilty as Judas.”

—— George James Jones, Cambrian, Oct. 1901
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“Is Czolgosz a half-crazed fanatic, irresponsible, representing nothing but his own wild vagaries, or is he the natural product of a system of teaching, the legitimate outcome of certain degenerate tendencies which have been allowed to persist? He professes that he was impelled to the crime by the vicious teaching of Emma Goldman. There was a purpose in his act, a shrewdness in its execution, a method in his madness that never originated with himself. He is the product of a movement, the outcome of visionary ideas, the logical result of certain established tendencies. In this view of the case he is more than a puny individual, more than a hollow-chested, flabby-muscled degenerate. He is a Frankenstein that we have raised up among us. Nor can we attribute the paternity of this monster to the effete despotisms of the old land. This is the misery of it all. He was born on our own soil, he grew up amidst the liberty-loving children of America. He was fashioned by the tendencies that surrounded him from early manhood. These are all facts that we cannot blink, distasteful as they are to our national pride.”

—— A. P. Doyle, Catholic World, Oct. 1901
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“Father and stepmother give him the reputation of a timid weakling, a ne’er-do-well.”

—— anonymous, Chautauquan, Oct. 1901
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“No war exists, no oppression, no depression, no party strife, no agitation of disputed questions, nothing to give the semblance of ‘a mission’ to the miserable youth who has only carved his name in black marble.”

—— J. W. Hamilton, Contemporary Review, Oct. 1901
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“The assassin of the President represents . . . ignoble discontent.”

—— John P. Irish, Domestic Science Monthly, Oct. 1901
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“This misguided young man who has done a deed that brings upon him the execrations of mankind is a product of countless evil influences that by force of circumstances have focused in him.”

—— anonymous, Education, Oct. 1901
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“. . . no penalty he can pay can expiate his guilt.”

—— anonymous, New York Lancet, Oct. 1901
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“It matters little whether the assailant of the President was the fanatical tool of shrewder anarchistic miscreants, whether solitary in crime, he craved a despicable notoriety or whether, weak in mind and morals, isolated in his broodings, ignorant of the sentiments of his fellow citizens, he imagined he was ridding the world of a tyrant, he is a product of American soil.”

—— anonymous, North American Journal of Homœopathy, Oct. 1901
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“. . . he has the signs of strength and weakness, but these are unfortunately blended in such a way that they do not give him the right use of his qualities as a normal American citizen.”

—— anonymous, Phrenological Journal and Phrenological Magazine, Oct. 1901
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“He has, from the standard of an anarchist, achieved a brilliant success, and his example will be followed by others if possible.”

—— anonymous, Railway Conductor, Oct. 1901
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“Czolgosz is the type of Hun and Vandal, which Macaulay, the English historian, declared long ago in a letter to Thomas Jefferson would ravage our republic in the twentieth century.”

—— anonymous, Socialist Spirit, Oct. 1901
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“. . . one needs must bespeak pity for the man upon whom is heaped to-day the execration and wrath of a whole nation. Leon Czolgosz needs love. He has always needed it. His mad act was a lightning-flash revelation of a miserable, loveless, beaten life. We cannot recoil in horror from him, for he is our brother; neither can we cast him from us, for we are still our brother’s keeper, bound eternally together by deep, mysterious laws. What is in us is in him—the same soul-needs and desires, the same noble possibilities.”

—— Marion Craig Wentworth, Socialist Spirit, Oct. 1901
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“The shame and indignation that has been expressed, everywhere, at the dastardly crime of the heartless anarchist who committed the deed has exemplified the humility the American citizen feels,—that, in his land of liberty, order, justice, and humanity, there should exist one whose heart is so hardened to the purpose of the republic, whose conscience is so foreign to its liberties, and whose mind so insensible to its wonderful benefits, that he would dare to raise the hand of the assassin against its ruler. This person claims to be an American-born citizen. More horrifying the deed; far deeper our disgrace.”

—— anonymous, Success, Oct. 1901
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“. . . a loathsome wretch whose name should never appear in print.”

—— anonymous, Table Talk, Oct. 1901
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“His bones should never be allowed to mingle with American soil. When the great sentence shall be executed, as it should be with swift justice becoming such an unspeakable tragedy, we could wish the United States Government would take the remains of the atrocious murderer 100 miles to sea and then, pinioned and manacled, with his revolver in his belt and a millstone chained about his neck, sink the corpse a thousand fathoms to the bottom of the ocean. . . .”

—— DeWitt Clinton Huntington, Buffalo Evening News, 3 Oct. 1901
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“. . . Leon Czolgosz will pass out into another world probably never realizing the horror and the grief he has caused in the world he is leaving behind.”

—— anonymous, Collier’s Weekly, 5 Oct. 1901
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“Why did such a creature commit a crime so unutterably disproportionate to his capacity?”

—— anonymous, Life, 10 Oct. 1901
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“No crueller punishment could have been devised for the Buffalo specimen than to expel him from the prison which was his refuge. So faulty is our obedience to laws at the best that he would hardly have lived to walk twenty paces from the jail door. The ‘oppressed’ people would have converted him into souvenirs.”

—— anonymous, Puck, 16 Oct. 1901
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“. . . his murderous act derived its impulse not from his own malice, but from an outside source; in other words, that he was merely an instrument—a willing instrument, it may be conceded—of external influences to which the weakness of his character made him susceptible.”

—— anonymous, Public, 26 Oct. 1901
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“He is a strange product—a puzzle.”

—— Hyacinthe Fudzinski, Chicago Daily Tribune, 28 Oct. 1901
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“. . . he loved his fellow-men, not wisely but too well.”

—— Henrietta Tice, Chicago Daily Tribune, 28 Oct. 1901
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“He is the most heartless man I ever saw. He has not the grace to love God.”

—— Hyacinthe Fudzinski, Buffalo Courier, 29 Oct. 1901
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“Without doubt he was the most remarkable criminal that this country has ever produced.”

—— Thomas W. Steep, Buffalo Courier, 29 Oct. 1901
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“He was a venomous worm differing in infamy from the other anarchistic worms in that he sought notoriety by murdering a ruler while they talked of doing it.”

—— anonymous, Chicago Daily Tribune, 30 Oct. 1901
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“Guiteau’s shooting of Garfield in the back was an awful deed, as was the work of Booth in assassinating Lincoln, but we have not the contempt for them that we have for Czolgosz, who offered one hand in friendship and then dealt murder with the other.”

—— anonymous, Iowa State Register, 30 Oct. 1901
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“Spiritually he is an imbecile.”

—— anonymous, American Lawyer, Oct.-Nov. 1901
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“The wretch who attacked President McKinley seems to have been inspired directly by the enunciation of anarchical doctrines; but in a country where illegal, violent, and murderous acts are constantly being performed by mobs of citizens who take the law into their own hands and hang, shoot, and burn human beings ‘for the public good,’ in such a country how can it be expected that individuals will not sometimes act on their own peculiar theories of ‘public good’ and perform executions without warrant of law?”

—— anonymous, Century Magazine, Nov. 1901
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“Czolgosz, misguided wretch, was at least honest and unselfish. He committed the deed because he thought it would benefit the laboring classes, well knowing that it would cost him his life. He made himself a willing sacrifice to what he thought would be the benefit of the toiling millions.”

—— anonymous, Medical World, Nov. 1901
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“If ever the power of a criminal suggestion over a mind that yields to mesmeric influence was clearly revealed, it was in the influence which this speech by Emma Goldman exercised upon the brain of Leon Czolgosz, impelling him to the assassination of William McKinley.”

—— Howard Dennis, Modern Culture, Nov. 1901
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“. . . the half responsible fellow who took the life of our President is less guilty than those who have made our thought atmosphere filthy with thoughts of revenge, of jealousy, of discontent, of atheism.”

—— G. D., Universal Brotherhood Path, Nov. 1901
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“The terrible crime was conceived by himself as the result of a naturally weak nature meditating on the doctrine of violence. It is probable that, if he had not happened to encounter an apostle of anarchy, he would have lived a commonplace, undeveloped life, without doing any act of violence and without developing any particularly vicious traits. There was nothing to show that he had any proper realization of the enormity of the crime that he committed. He was simply a pitiful victim of anarchism. But he was not insane, not irresponsible. He was only a degenerate. He gives the best possible reason for all judicious restraint on the preaching of dangerous doctrines. When they lodge in a weak mind like his there is always a grave danger of tragic results.”

—— anonymous, World’s Work, Nov. 1901
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“Had Czolgosz been industrious and sincere in his desire to lead an honorable career, and to become a good citizen, our late President would, no doubt, have been alive to-day.”

—— T. J. Betiero, Star of the Magi, 1 Nov. 1901
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“Whoso sheddeth man’s blood, by man shall his blood be shed. Czolgosz has paid the legal penalty for his murder of President McKinley, declaring to the last that he acted purely from a sense of duty and that he had no accomplices. Physicians who examined the assassin before and after death affirm that he was sane and of normal physical and mental development. There is some satisfaction in the theory now accepted by the police that Czolgosz’s crime was not the result of a conspiracy—one Czolgosz is enough.”

—— anonymous, Public Opinion, 7 Nov. 1901
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                                         No creeping thing
On God’s green earth so loathsome is as you.

—— E. J. H. Sellingham, Ticonderoga Sentinel, 7 Nov. 1901
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“Czolgosz may, or may not, have had a sincere regard for the welfare of the working people. Whatever he felt, it is evident that he held government in detestation. No sane man hates good government, and, from my standpoint, no sane man can believe in Czolgosz’s methods. No wrong can be righted by wrong methods. Czolgosz’s methods are not only wrong, but diabolically wrong.”

—— Jo McDill, Kansas Agitator, 8 Nov. 1901
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“. . . Czolgosz’s bearing, conduct and declarations from the time he murdered the President down to that of his execution have been entirely consistent with the teachings and the creed of Anarchism and stamp him as an Anarchist of the deepest dye.”

—— Carlos F. MacDonald, Medical News, 9 Nov. 1901
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“Czolgosz was not a type, but an unreasoning, though not insane, moral pervert.”

—— anonymous, Outlook, 9 Nov. 1901
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“I don’t believe in the Republican form of government, and I don’t believe we should have any rulers. It is right to kill them. I had that idea when I shot the President, and that is why I was there.”

—— Leon Czolgosz, Philadelphia Medical Journal, 9 Nov. 1901
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“He is the product of Anarchy, sane and responsible.”

—— Joseph Fowler, Floyd S. Crego, and James W. Putnam, Philadelphia Medical Journal, 9 Nov. 1901
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“He slew a greater than himself, and by the act achieved greatness. The insignificant became significant.”

—— anonymous, Cambridge Chronicle, 16 Nov. 1901
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“Now that this Grendel has appeared among us and taken off one of our greatest citizens, from whence is to come the noble Beowulf, who shall slay both the monster and its mother?”

—— F. S. Key Smith, Albany Law Journal, Dec. 1901
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“In the assassin we have the product of atheism. . . .”

—— W. Roland Williams, Cambrian, Dec. 1901
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“Il y a des jeunes gens si purs que leur vie est un cristal qui reflète leurs pensées en toute ingénuité, et dont les gestes se propagent et vivent à l’unisson de leur cœur. Je crois que Czolgosz était un de ceux-là.”

—— Charles-Louis Philippe, L’Ermitage, Dec. 1901
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“The world may well dismiss Czolgosz as in no sense the exponent of, but rather a sporadic product of Socialism and Anarchy, and simply regard him as a soft creature, not deranged, but acting under an evil impulse, fully conscious of what he was doing and what the consequences would be.”

—— LeRoy Parker, Yale Law Journal, Dec. 1901
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None shall weep for thee;
Few shall pray for thee;
God will deal with thee.

—— Oliver Allstorm, Chords from a Strange Lyre, 1902
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“. . . one whose mind had become so diseased that he was delirious in his reasoning beyond all our comprehensions.”

—— C. A. Strickland, One Free Life at a Time, 1902
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“The weight of evidence seems to be in favor of the view that Czolgosz was an anarchist who was not insane, but who presented a certain degenerate type common to the class.”

—— Harold N. Moyer, The Practical Medicine Series of Year Books, 1902
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“Had he slain a less prominent and less beloved personage than the great and good President, the question of defending him on the plea of irresponsibility might have received a judicial hearing, and, doubtless, experts could have been found to defend him on that plea, and perhaps successfully. This is especially true had he occupied a higher social position and been surrounded by wealthy and influential friends.”

—— James Russell, Proceedings of the American Medico-Psychological Association, 1902
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“. . . the murderer was only a wretched decadent, a mere tool in the hands of conspirators. . . .”

—— U. M. Rose, Report of the Twenty-Fifth Annual Meeting of the American Bar Association, 1902
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“. . . one whose mental and moral nature had been wholly perverted.”

—— John Lancaster Spalding, Socialism and Labor and Other Arguments, Social, Political, and Patriotic, 1902
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“The characterization of Czolgosz may be summed up as a whole in the words: Immature, primitive, atavistic. His personality was unmistakable. The moral potentialities of his character only awaited the touch of opportunity to bring into action. He was a predestined criminal—a mental and moral degenerate whose etiology is lost in the intricate and insoluble mysteries that characterize nature’s moods under the sway of hereditary law and reversion to type.”

—— August Drahms, Alienist and Neurologist, Jan. 1902
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“But what was the state of Czolgosz’s mind? Legally sane of course, for it would be contrary to sound public policy to extenuate such crimes on the plea of insanity in any but the most flagrantly insane.”

—— Charles Hamilton Hughes, Alienist and Neurologist, Jan. 1902
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“. . . everything in his history as shown by his conduct and declarations, points to the existence in him of the social disease, Anarchy, of which he was a victim.”

—— Carlos F. MacDonald, American Journal of Insanity, Jan. 1902
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“He is a significant product and a revelation of an insane, unkind, spurious civilization.”

—— J. Bruce Wallace, Arena, Jan. 1902
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“Czolgosz himself was hardly a native; though born in America, his associations had not been American.”

—— H. M. Bannister, Journal of Mental Science, Jan. 1902
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“Czolgosz was not a type frequently found in our public lunatic asylums, but rather an aggravated specimen from the insane borderlands.”

—— J. Sanderson Christison, Kansas City Medical Index-Lancet, Jan. 1902
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“Czolgosz can no more be regarded an anarchist or a rational product of anarchy than a casual visitor to a synagogue can be regarded as an orthodox Jew.”

—— J. Sanderson Christison, Kansas City Medical Index-Lancet, Jan. 1902
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“The assassin is himself a victim to his terribly mistaken zeal for what he regards as reform.”

—— Herbert Lee, Pacific Unitarian, Jan. 1902
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“So far from knowing he was doing wrong, he believed he was doing right—a right for which he was ready to sacrifice his life, and from which he, in his grave, could gain no good.”

—— Henry Holt, American Monthly Review of Reviews, Feb. 1902
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“Believing as I have, that a public school is in itself a social community where the child learns, if he learns nothing else, the necessity for subordinating his individual will to the welfare of the whole, I wondered how it was possible for this man to grow up in this republic with such a defective mind and character.”

—— Henry P. Emerson, American Education, Mar. 1902
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“He was a young man, born in this country, educated in the common schools, in good health, and with unimpaired mind. He was a believer in the religion of his fathers and in the government of his country until he fell under the fatal influence of the anarchists. He attended their meetings, he hearkened to their harangues, he drank in their doctrines. The poison saturated his soul. He abjured his religion, he renounced his country, he devoted himself to the destruction of society. He became, what every anarchist is at heart, an apostate, a traitor, an outlaw.”

—— John K. Richards, American Law Review, May-June 1902
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“. . . this poor boy who gave up his life for the downtrodden and exploited.”

—— anonymous, Freedom, July 1902
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The fame that thou didst seek is sunk
     In infamy so dark,
No miscreant alive, though drunk,
     Thy name for praise would mark.

—— Nelse J. Scurlock, Fishin’ ’Long Old Ellum Creek and Other Poems, 1903
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“Czolgosz did not slay because he was an anarchist. He slew because he was a primitive man.”

—— Michael A. Lane, National Magazine, July 1904
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“Czolgoz [sic] the assassin was reared amid blows, and curses, and trained to anarchy in the vicious ward of an American city. Untouched by loving sympathy, uncared for by church missionary or Sunday school teacher, the springs of life were poisoned. Whatever good was in him was never called forth. Had some one loved him in childhood, and been solicitous for his life in early years, on that memorable day at Buffalo he might have brought instead of a smoking revolver, a boquet [sic] of fragrant flowers to President McKinley.”

—— Charles C. Earle, Watchman, 17 Nov. 1904
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“There is no reason to believe him insane, but the logic employed to prove his sanity was not altogether scientific.”

—— Eugene S. Talbot, Developmental Pathology, 1905
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“He was a Pole by birth, and had a long line of revolutionary ancestry behind him. The Polish race of all others is the most likely to advocate revolution and assassination as ‘reform’ measures. Long years of oppression, and reaction against it, are responsible for this trait. The ‘removal’ of political and social obstacles was, therefore, an inborn principle with Czolgosz. What heredity had begun education completed, for he was trained in Polish parochial schools.”

—— G. Frank Lydston, The Diseases of Society, 1906
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“He was an unintelligent, dull young man whose brain had been inflamed by listening to the oratory of foreign anarchists. . . .”

—— Harry Thurston Peck, Bookman, Apr. 1906
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“His soul craved freedom and he longed to hear the trumpet of the liberating battle.”

—— Max Baginski, Mother Earth, Oct. 1906
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“. . . we cannot fail to see that he belonged to the class of the obnubilated, and of the morally insane.”

—— A. Ravogli, Syphilis in Its Medical, Medico-Legal and Sociological Aspects, 1907
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“If martyrdom is insisted upon, which was the martyr, the man who had had the good of life, who was past middle years, who had received reward and distinction to satiety, who had ordered others killed without once jeopardizing his own life, and to whom death came more easily than to millions who die of long want and slow tortures of disease, or this young strong soul which struck its own blow and paid with its own life, so capable of the utterest devotion, so embittered and ruined in its youth, so hopeless, so wasted, so cast out of the heart of pity, so altogether alone in its last agony?”

—— Voltairine de Cleyre, Mother Earth, Oct. 1907
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“In quell’ adolescente quadrilustre era più carattere, più energia, più coscienza che non siano di consueto in molti uomini e magari in molti superuomini orgogliosi e vani.”

—— Luigi Galleani, Cronaca Sovversiva, 2 Nov. 1907
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“. . . an anarchist with a name unpronounceable by an Anglo-Saxon tongue. . . .”

—— William F. Draper, Recollections of a Varied Career, 1908
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“. . . a low, ignorant cur whose mind was deluded by ignorance, disgrace and shame. He was fed by the flaunting thought of those beastly flesh eaters whose whole life is sloth and a curse to the human race; whose body has been built up by the flesh of swine, known as the lowest animal to the human race. What could you expect from a man of people constantly fed on hogs’ brains. . . .”

—— Alice Cary, The Life of Little Justin Hulburd, 1909
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“Poor Leon Czolgosz, your crime consisted of too sensitive a social consciousness. Unlike your idealless and brainless American brothers, your ideals soared above the belly and the bank account.”

—— Emma Goldman, Anarchism and Other Essays, 1910
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“Had there been a rope handy I should have helped to hang the brute to the nearest lamppost.”

—— Thomas Collier Platt, The Autobiography of Thomas Collier Platt, 1910
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“Now, after a decade, as we approach his sombre suffering figure, we see in him the nameless representative of a nameless humanity—humanity enduring endlessly, hoping endlessly, and forever thrust back into the abyss of poverty and despair.”

—— anonymous, Mother Earth, Oct. 1911
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“‘I did it for the good of the people,’ were the last words of the solitary youth in the death-chair of Auburn prison. But the people knew him not, the people passed him by in blind hatred. Yet with all that, he was flesh of their flesh and blood of their blood. He suffered for them, endured humiliation for them, gave his life for them. His tragedy consisted in his great and intense love for the people, but unlike many of his brother slaves he could neither submit nor bow his neck. Thus he had to die.”

—— Emma Goldman, Mother Earth, Oct. 1911
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“He was an example of an uneducated man imbued with anarchistic ideas, especially in an extreme form.”

—— Arthur MacDonald, Journal of the American Institute of Criminal Law and Criminology, Nov. 1911
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“He succeeded in bringing about a sudden change in rulers, and I am prepared to argue that the change was rather for the worse than the better, but he did not aid one jot or tittle in bringing about a change in the character of the rule. He did not make a single contribution of value to a people distressed with economic ills of great magnitude.”

—— Ellis O. Jones, Masses, Apr. 1912
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“We have not the least doubt that the future historians, who will not be content with picturing the glories of great generals and their armies, but who will deal with the struggles of humanity for greater freedom, will assign to Leon Czolgosz a more honorable niche in the temple of humanity, than to William McKinley.”

—— anonymous, Mother Earth, Oct. 1912
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“. . . Leon Czolgosz was of that idealist calibre which our perverted society forever nails to the cross.”

—— anonymous, Mother Earth, Oct. 1913
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“The wretch Czolgoz [sic], was not the product of American civilization, but that of Europe, where unequal laws, social customs and military rule, degrade and brutalize the masses.”

—— Michael Piggott, American Genealogy, 1915
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“The assassin was really a defective who had long been drifting to paranoia, and whose actual delusions of persecution and grandeur found soil in which to grow.”

—— Allan McLane Hamilton, Recollections of an Alienist, 1916
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“. . . there can be no doubt that in a social psychological sense the motives which urged him on were essentially the same as those that led a John Brown to attack Harpers Ferry, or that inspired the men of the Chicago Haymarket trial to their bold arraignment of society before they died on the scaffold.”

—— anonymous, Mother Earth, Oct. 1916
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“This ass with the unpronounceable name was probably more insane than usual this week or two back, and may get back upon his bearings by and by, but he was over the sanity-border when he shot the President.”

—— Mark Twain, Mark Twain’s Letters, 1917
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“There is no doubt that he was an uneducated, misguided fanatic.”

—— Charles R. Skinner, State Service, Apr. 1919
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“. . . a pitiless man whom Satan hath bound. . . .”

—— Edward A. Kimball, Lectures and Articles on Christian Science, 1921
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More wanton or inhuman fiend
     Could not have raised the murderous hand,
Nor found in human breast a-kin,
     With heart so black, and soul so damned.

—— J. L. Forwood, After Hours, 1922
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